DeMoss Chapter 2 Cont.

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DeMoss Chapter 2 Cont.
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2011-01-29 12:45:03
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DeMoss AP
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Slides 37-80
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  1. Many functional groups can attach to carbon skeleton; name some.
    • esters
    • amino
    • carboxyl
    • phosphate groups
  2. Define the actions in this pic.
    • Top: Dehydration Synthesis
    • Bottom: Hydrolysis
  3. Identify the following:
    Fatty acid; final form is adipose (fat) tissue.
  4. Identify the following:
    A monomer.
  5. Identify the following:
    A monosaccharide
  6. Identify the following:
    A Nucleotide.
  7. True or False
    Carbohydrates provide most of the energy needed for life which includes simple sugars, starches, and cellulose.
    True.
  8. What are the 3 major Carbohydrates groups?
    • Monosaccharides
    • Disaccharides
    • Polysaccharides
  9. What is an isomer?
    Isomers have the same molecular formulas but different structures (glucose & fructose are both C6H12O6)
  10. Define Disaccharides
    • Combining 2 monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis releases a water molecule.
    • sucrose = glucose & fructose
    • maltose = glucose & glucose
    • lactose = glucose & galactose (lactose intolerance)
  11. True or False
    Polysaccharides are the largest carbohydrates and may contain hundreds of monosaccharides.
    True
  12. What is glycogen?
    The principal polysaccharide in the human body is glycogen, which is stored in the liver or skeletal muscles (animal starch).
  13. Define Lipids
    Lipids, like carbohydrates, contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; but unlike carbohydrates, they do not have a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen.
  14. True or False?
    Lipids have few many polar covalent bonds
    False.
  15. Lipids also:
    • are hydrophobic mostly insoluble in polar solvents such as water
    • combines with proteins (lipoproteins) for transport in blood
  16. What are the most plentiful lipids in the body?
    Triglycerides are the most plentiful lipids in the body and provide protection, insulation, and energy (both immediate and stored).
  17. True or False.
    Unlike other lipids, Triglyceride storage is virtually unlimited.
    True. Excess dietary carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and oils will be deposited in adipose tissue as triglyceride
  18. Define Phospholipids.
    They are amphipathic, with both polar and nonpolar regions.A polar head and 2 nonpolar fatty acid tails that interact only with lipids.
  19. Steroids include; Cholesterol. Tell me about.
    Cholesterol, is an important component of cell membranes and as starting material for synthesizing other steroids. sex hormones bile salts and some vitamins
  20. Review:
  21. What is the most identifiable characteristic of proteins?
    The "R" group. There are many and the combinations are limitless. However the important thing to remember is the "R" group.
  22. What are proteins made up of?
    Constructed from combinations of 20 amino acids. dipeptide formed from 2 amino acids joined by a covalent bond called a peptide bondpolypeptide chains formed from 10 to 2000 amino acids.
  23. How is Dipeptide formed ?
    Dipeptide is formed from 2 amino acids joined by a covalent bond called a peptide bond
  24. Define the levels of organization in Protein .
    • primary-the polypeptide chain
    • secondary-helix or pleated fold
    • tertiary-sum of all secondary
    • quaternary- interaction between proteins.
  25. Define, Denaturation.
    Denaturation of a protein by a hostile environment causes loss of its characteristic shape and function.
  26. Review to identify the specific bonds.
  27. Review for Organization
  28. Define Enzymes.
    Any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and acts as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions. Or a molecule that works on another molecule.
  29. What are catalysts living in cells referred to as?
    Enzymes.
  30. Enzymes are highly specific in terms of the _________ with which they react.
    Substrates
  31. How do enzymes work?
    Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by increasing frequency of collisions, lowering the activation energy and properly orienting the colliding molecules.
  32. True or False?
    Nucleic acids are small organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
    • False
    • Nucleic acids are huge organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
  33. What forms the genetic code inside each cell and thereby regulates most of the activities that take place in our cells throughout a lifetime?
    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
  34. What does Ribonucleic acid (RNA) do?
    It relays instructions from the genes in the cell’s nucleus to guide each cell’s assembly of amino acids into proteins by the ribosomes.
  35. What are basic units of nucleic acids?
    Nucleotides, composed of a nitrogenous base, a pentose, sugar, and a phosphate group.
  36. How does RNA differ from DNA?
    • single stranded
    • ribose sugar not deoxyribose sugaruracil
    • nitrogenous base replaces thymine
  37. What are the different functions of RNA?
    • messenger RN
    • Aribosomal RNA
    • transfer RNA
  38. What is Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)?
    Temporary molecular storage form of energy as it is being transferred from exergonic catabolic reactions to cellular activities
  39. Explain Synthesis of ATP
    enzyme ATP synthase catalyzes the addition of the terminal phosphate group to ADP
  40. What happens in Hydrolysis of ATP (removal of terminal phosphate group by enzyme -- ATPase)?
    • releases energy
    • leaves ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
  41. What do we know about Enzymes?
    Are biological catalysts that increase rate of chemical reactions

    They are not altered by the reaction and do not change the outcome of the reaction they catalyze

    Most are proteins

    Act by lowering energy required for a reaction to proceed (Activation Energy)

    By decreasing the activation energy, enzymes allow a larger proportion of the reactants to participate in the reaction, thus increasing the reaction rate

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