Nervous System: The Brain

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Nervous System: The Brain
2011-01-29 13:10:16
Nervous System Brain

Nervous System: The Brain
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  1. Major Divisions of the Brain
    • Forebrain, midbrain, and Hindbrain
    • Midbrain + Pons + Medulla = Brainstem
    • Telencephalon = cerebrum
  2. Gyrus
  3. Sulcus
  4. Fissure
    A major sulcus or groove
  5. Gray Matter
    • Cell bodies + Dendrites = Gray Matter
    • Outer portions of cortex and cerebellum
    • Subcortical structures
  6. White Matter
  7. Meninges
    Dura Mater, Subarachnoid Space, and Pia Mater
  8. Dura Mater
    Tough outer covering; forms dural sinuses to drain blood from brain
  9. Subarachnoid Space
    Contains Cerebrospinal Fluid
  10. Pia Mater
    Surrounds brain, penetrates sulci
  11. Ventricles
    • Ventricles contain cerebrospinal fluid
    • Choroid plexus lining ventricles produces the CSP
  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • Choroid plexus produces 500 ml of CSF per day
    • Nervous system can hold about 150 ml at any given time
    • Constantly being produced and the drained into blood
  13. Function of CSF
    Bouyancy, Protection and Chemical Stability (gets rid of metabolic waste, excess hormone and neurotransmitters)
  14. Lumbar Puncture
    • Allows removal of CSF
    • CSF analyzed for protein content, glucose levels, white blood cells as indicator of disease or infection (like meningitis)
  15. Hydrocephalus
    • Buildup of excess CSF
    • Can cause neuron death due to increased intracranial pressure
  16. Vascularization of the Brain
    Neurons have an extremely high metabolic rate, so they need lots of glucose and oxygen (thus blood)
  17. Stroke
    • Weakening or clot formation in arteries supplying brain can lead to stroke
    • Symptoms of stroke vary depending on part of brain affected
  18. Blood-Brain Barrier
    • Tight junction of epithelial cells lining blood vessels
    • Brain's best defense against infection
    • Prevents most bacteria and other toxins from entering nervous system
    • Permits water, glucose, oxygen, carbon dioxide, alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, anesthetics
  19. Circumventricular organs
    A few areas don't have a BBB so that the brain can monitor blood glucose, temperature, pH, etc