Chapter_55

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Author:
AlexisSheasMommy
ID:
62817
Filename:
Chapter_55
Updated:
2011-01-29 17:27:43
Tags:
Eastern Suffolk Boces
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Description:
Burns
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  1. Burns are:
    Wounds caused by an energy transfer from a heat source to the body, heating enough to cause damage.
  2. Amount of skin damage is related to
    • 1. Temperature of agent
    • 2. Burning agent itself
    • 3. Duration of contact
    • 4. Conductivity of tissue
    • 5. Thickness of dermal structures
  3. Complications of burn injuries include
    • Loss of protective functions
    • Inefeective Thermoregulation
    • Risk of infection
    • Changes in sensory function
    • Loss of fluids
    • Impaired skin regeneration
    • Impaired secretory and excretory function
  4. Hyperemia (epidermis)
    • Vascularity maintaines
    • No cell death
    • Red
    • Blanching
  5. Stasis (dermis)
    • Temperature increase in tissue edema
    • Vasoconstriction
    • Sludging of blood cells
    • Red
    • No blanching
  6. Coagulation (subcutaneous)
    • Irreversible cell death
    • White or gray
    • No blanching
  7. Partial thickness burns
    Superficial
    • (1st-2nd degree)
    • Healing time: 7-10 days
  8. Partial thickness
    Deep
    • Epidermis and 1/2 to 7/8 of dermis
    • Healing time: 14-21 days
    • May need grafting
  9. Full thickness
    • 3rd-4th degree
    • Needs grafting to complete healing
  10. Fluid balance complications related to burns
    • Increased capillary permeability leads to leakage of plasma and proteins into tissue which leads to edema.
    • Edema=loss of systemic volume.
  11. Cardiac function complications related to burns
    • Initial decrease in cardiac output
    • Loss of circulating plasma volume
    • Hypovolemia related to fluid shift
    • Can lead to hypovolemic shock
    • Increases in hematocrit
    • RBC's destroyed
    • Decrease in platelet function
    • Possibke thrombosis
  12. Metabolic change complications related to burns
    • High metabolic rate
    • Stress response (elevated catacholamine levels)
    • severe catabolism
    • Weight loss
    • Decreased wound healing
    • High sugar levels
  13. GI complications related to burns
    • Gastric dilation
    • Peptic ulcers
    • Paralytic ileus
    • Depressed motility
  14. Renal complications related to burns
    • Hypovolemia
    • Decreased cardiac output
    • Decreased renal blood flow
    • Decreased GFR
    • Myoglobin casts related to muscle destruction
    • Renal tubular necrosis
  15. Pulmonary complications related to burns
    • Related to smoke inhalation
    • Hyperventilation
    • Increased O2 consumption
    • Fear
    • Anxiety
    • Pain
  16. Immune function complications related to burns
    • Depresses immunoglobulins:
    • IgA
    • IgG
    • IgM
  17. Rule of 9's for the adult
    • Head & neck: 9%
    • Front: 18%
    • Back: 18%
    • Arm: 9% (x2)
    • Leg: 18% (x2)
    • Genitalia: 1%
  18. Rule of 9's for the child
    • Head & neck: 18%
    • Back: 18%
    • Front: 18%
    • Arm: 9% (x2)
    • Leg: 13.5% (x2)
    • Genitalia: 1%
  19. Stages of burn care
    • 1: emergent
    • 2: acute
    • 3: rehabilitation
  20. Autograft
    Skin taken from another part of the body to be grafted
  21. Silvadine
    Topical
  22. Sulfamylon
    Topical
  23. Silver nitrate
    Topical
  24. Bacitracin
    Topical
  25. Gentamycin
    Topical
  26. Bactroban
    Topical
  27. Neosporin
    Topical

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