Cognitive Science Q2

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afdrummond
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62838
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Cognitive Science Q2
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2011-01-29 19:20:02
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psychology cognitive science faust uncc psyc3216
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Module 2 - Consciousness
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  1. AMNESIA
    a memory impairment due to brain damage
  2. APHASIA
    an impairment of speech production or comprehension resulting from brain damage
  3. BLINDSIGHT
    a condition due to damage of the primary visual cortex, in which patients claim that they cannot see while they exhibit some residual vision
  4. COMA
    a deep state of unconsciousness
  5. DECOMPOSABILITY
    the view that cognitive processes can be analyzed into a system of related component functions which in turn can be analyzed into related component functions, etc., until the components are so simple that no further analysis is required; rather, the resulting components can be executed by simple hardware (brain processes or computer logic gates)
  6. EARLY SELECTION
    can find a target in the midst of background items based on a superficial analysis
  7. FUNCTIONALISM
    the view that mental states are defined by functional relationships and not uniquely identified either with particular neurophysiological states or with particular qualia (the qualitative sensations that constitute subjective experience)
  8. HYPNOSIS
    a state of increased suggestibility
  9. IMITATION GAME
    a game in which an interrogator tries to determine which of two unobserved persons is a man and which is a woman, solely on the basis of written responses to questions submitted by the interrogator; this game served as a basis for a more general contest, the Turing Test, in which the objective is to distinguish a human from a computer solely on the basis of written questions and responses.
  10. INTENTIONALITY
    a feature of mental states by which they are directed toward states of affairs in the world
  11. INTROSPECTIONISM
    a German, 19th century school of psychology whose aim was to analyze conscious experience under controlled experimental conditions
  12. INVERTED SPECTRUM THESIS
    the view that different individuals, although agreeing with conventions and behavior related to naming colors, could actually be having very different subjective experiences of color
  13. LADY LOVELACE'S OBJECTION
    an objection considered by Turing (attributed to Lady Lovelace) against the thesis that computers can think. The objection is that computers can't think because they cannot originate anything but can only do what they are programmed to do
  14. LATE SELECTION
    can find a target by processing all of the background information
  15. MEDITATION
    an altered form of consciousness, in which attention is focused on the processes of the autonomic nervous system while ignoring the physical environment
  16. MEDIUM INDEPENDENCE
    a mental state or process is a functional state, that is, a set of relationships, and that these relationships can be instantiated in a variety of physical substrates. So, a mental state, while requiring some underlying physical substrate, is independent of any one physical substrate
  17. PHI PHENOMENON
    an illusion in which two flashing, stationary images appear to move from one point to another under certain conditions. These conditions consist of distance between images, duration of each presented image, and the interval between presentations
  18. QUALIA
    the qualitative sensations that constitute subjective experience
  19. SEMANTICS
    the study of how language has meaning. In Searle's Chinese Room thought experiment, semantics is defined as the relationship between symbols (words, phrases, etc.) and the things symbolized (objects)
  20. SEARLE'S CHINESE ROOM
    a thought experiment designed to show that computers do not and cannot have mental states like understanding, because computers manipulate symbols while having no inkling of what those symbols stand for
  21. SYNTAX
    rules that specify what constitute legitimate symbols in a language and how these symbols can grammatically be put together
  22. TURING TEST
    a behavioral test of whether a computer can think; a human submits questions to both a computer and a human, at first not knowing which is which; if the interrogator cannot reliably distinguish the two on the basis of responses to questions posed, the computer must be credited with thinking
  23. UNILATERAL NEGLECT
    a condition resulting from a lesion of the parietal lobe, in which patients ignore information presented in the left half of their visual field
  24. Positioned at the lowest level of
    the consciousness continuum is/are:
    A. meditation
    B. focused attention tasks
    C. states associated with drugs
    D. sleep
    D. sleep
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. When searching for the presence of the target:
    A. late selection is required
    B. focused attention is unnecessary
    C. it is not necessary to fully process the background items
    D. more time is required than when searching for the absence of the target
    C. it is not necessary to fully process the background items
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. The Stroop Effect involves:
    A. a difficulty in remembering words printed in colors
    B. a difficulty in differentiating between colors of words
    C. a difficulty in identifying words printed in colors
    D. a difficulty in naming colors in which words are printed
    D. a difficulty in naming colors in which words are printed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. All of the following are failures of selective attention except:
    A. Stroop effect
    B. pop out effect
    C. hypnosis
    D. preconscious processing
    C. hypnosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. The effects of opium include:
    A. hallucinations
    B. relief from pain
    C. irritability
    D. relief from guilt
    B. relief from pain
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Alcohol belongs to:
    A. stimulants and convulsants
    B. sedative-hypnotic compounds
    C. narcotic analgesics
    D. hallucinogens and psychedelics
    B. sedative-hypnotic compounds
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. All of the following are physiological
    changes occuring during meditation except the decrease in:
    A. blood pressure
    B. alpha waves
    C. respiration rate
    D. heart rate
    B. alpha waves
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. According to recent research, which stage of sleep might be associated with consolidation of memories?
    A. 4
    B. 3
    C. 1
    D. 2
    C. 1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Recent research on sleep shows that
    A. rats, when learning mazes, spend more time in rapid eye movement sleep
    B. dreams provide us with access to the unconscious
    C. dreams are associated with the second stage of sleep
    D. people who are deprived of slow wave sleep have difficulties in learning
    A. rats, when learning mazes, spend more time in rapid eye movement sleep
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Blindsight is an example of a(n)
    A. memory impairment
    B. effect of damage to the temporal lobes
    C. altered state of conscousness
    D. performance without awareness
    D. performance without awareness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. The Turing Test assumes a connection between intelligence and:
    A. SAT scores
    B. behavior
    C. brain size
    D. genetic inheritance
    B. behavior
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. According to Searle, the Chinese Room thought experiment shows that:
    A. computers cannot have the mental state of understanding because they lack sufficient memory
    B. computers cannot have the mental state of understanding because they cannot relate symbols with the things symbolized
    C. sophisticated syntactical structures are sufficient for computers to have mental states
    D. a man locked in an empty room and allowed only Chinese input and output would eventually learn to order Moo Goo Gai Pan
    B. computers cannot have the mental state of understanding because they cannot relate symbols with the things symbolized
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. The Robot Reply to Searle's Chinese room thought experiment is that:
    A. robots will evolve to the point of understanding many languages, including Chinese
    B. a computerized robot equipped with sensory input could relate symbol and the thing symbolized
    C. the distinction between syntax and semantics does not apply to robots
    D. robotic intelligence will not engage in thought experiments
    B. a computerized robot equipped with sensory input could relate symbol and the thing symbolized
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Factors relevant to producing the Phi Phenomenon include all of the following except:
    A. duration of image presentation
    B. interval between image presentation
    C. brightness of the image
    D. distance between images presented
    C. brightness of the image
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. The Time Delay account of the Phi phenomenon emphasizes
    A. the delay between the presentation of one image and the next
    B. the delay between neural firings
    C. the time required for transmission along the optic nerve
    D. the delay between brain representation and presentation to consciousness
    D. the delay between brain representation and presentation to consciousness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. The Memory Corruption account of the Phi phenomena claims that:
    A. staring at flashing images for prolonged periods, especially on a computer screen, can damage short term memory
    B. When presented with flashing images, observers cannot remember exactly where the previous image appeared
    C. initial consciousness of two flashing images reveals no motion, but the experience is immediately stored in memory with a sense of motion added
    D. observers of the Phi phenomenon have difficulty remembering whether or not they were aware of motion
    C. initial consciousness of two flashing images reveals no motion, but the experience is immediately stored in memory with a sense of motion added
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. The Multiple Drafts account of the Phi phenomenon claims that:
    a. there is no one place in the brain responsible for producing conscious experience
    b. Information entering the nervous system is under continuous "editorial revision"
    c. there can be a difference between the objective and subjective order of time
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  41. The inverted spectrum thesis claims the possibility of:
    a. a light spectrum appearing to be inverted when passing through a prism
    b two people having the same subjective experience of a color and yet using different
    names for that color
    c. two people having the different subjective experiences of a color and yet using the same name for that color
    d. people seeing color differently when standing on their heads
    c. two people having the different subjective experiences of a color and yet using the same name for that color
  42. According to Introspectionism, consciousness is studied by:
    A. inferring conscious experience from observed behavior
    B. using verbal reports to infer mental events
    C. describing conscious contents under controlled conditions
    D. correlating of brain events with mental events
    C. describing conscious contents under controlled conditions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Medium Independence is the view that:
    A. Clairvoyants have rights, too
    B. average cognitive abilities are independent of genetic influence
    C. there is only one physical substrate that can underlie a given cognitive ability
    D. a given cognitive state could be instantiated in different physical substrates
    D. a given cognitive state could be instantiated in different physical substrates
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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