quiz #1- action potentials
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What is the resting potential of a cell?
What are the four components of a neuron?
- dendrites: receiving prongs
- axon: reduces from cell body to target cell
- Presynaptic terminal: fingerlike projections that are transmitting elements
- soma: where neurotransmitters are produced
Where is K+ concentration the greatest?
in the cell
Where is Na+ concentration the greatest?
out of the cell
What is the permeability of a membrane (in terms of high or low for potassium or sodium)?
- high for potassium
- low for sodium
What is K+ equilibrium potential?
What is Na+ equilibrium potential?
What is depolarization?
lose - charge
What is repolarization?
Try to get back to -70
What is hyperpolarization?
increase - charge
What is threshold?
What does the Na/K pump do?
- reestablish the concentration
- Na OUT of cell
- K IN cell
What is quantal release?
each synapse releases a set quantity of neurotransmitters
How is a neurotransmitter released?
Presynaptic neuron releases a neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft and the neurotransmitter diffuses from 1 side to another then binds to post synaptic neuron.
What is myasthenia gravis?
receptors for Ach blocked at neurotransmitter junction so the muscles don't contract
What is a cause of depression?
decreased serotonin produced in the brain
Where is Acetylcholine produced?
- neuromuscular junction
- basal ganglia
- parasympatheric post-ganglionic neurons
Where is dopamine produced?
Where is norepinephrine produced?
- brain stem
- sympathetic post-ganglionic cells
Where is serotonin produced?
Where is glycine produced?
spinal cord- inhibitory
Where is GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) produced:
spinal cord- inhibitory
Where is Glutamate produced?
What is one ion that can cause an inhibitory post-synaptic potential
K+: causes hyperpolarization
What is one ion that can cause an excitatory post-synaptic potential?
Na+- causes depolarization
What is temporal summation?
- combined effect of series of small potential changes causes depolarizations
- frequency of action potentials
What is spatial summation?
- receptors or synaptic potentials in different regions added together to cause depolarization
- number of fibers processing action potentials
TRUE OR FALSE: EPSP-IPSP cancellation can NOT occur.
What are two things that can make an action potential occur faster?
- axon diamter (more can get through at once)
- myelination (prevents leakage)
What is saltatory conduction?
when an action potential proceedes down the myelinated axon jumping from node to node
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