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What are the 2 major divisions of the nervous system?
- Central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
- peripheral nervous system
What are the 2 subdivisions included in the peripheral nervous system?
- somatic system
- autonomic system (ANS)
which nervous system controls voluntary skeletal muscle activity and conducts sensory information?
somatic nervous system
In the somatic nervous system, fibers pass from the _________ directly to the ___________
- spinal cord
- striated muscles
What nervous systyem controls involuntary automatic activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, visceral organs, and glands?
Autonomic nervous system (involuntary or automatic nervous system)
Information is collected about conditions inside and outside the body, and the ANS respondes to changes through a __________; which is the automatic motor response to sensory stimuli
what structure is the basis of communication of information through the nervous system?
nerve fiber (neuron)
What are the two main functional processes involved in the communication of information through the nervous system?
- sensory input (afferent)
- motor output (efferent
- (sensory afferent; motor efferent)
in regards to communication of information of the nervous system:
the first component is the _______ which detects environmental changes and produces a stimulus that transmits a nerve impulse along the _________ neuron to the ___. The second component occurs within the ___ which then issues instructions to the tissues innervated via an ____ ______ ______ impulse to the peripheral or _____ ___.
- efferent motor nerve
- effector organ
The _______________ functions as a feedback mechanism operating from a receptor to an effector organ for the purpose of preventing changes in function that may result in internal disturbances
Which nervous system is responsible for controling blood pressure, heart rate, GI motility, salivation, bronchial/smooth muscle tone?
Autonomic nervous system
The body responds to changes inside and outside the body through a what?
What are the 2 subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system?
- parasympathetic nervous system (rest and digest)
- sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight)
group of nerve cell bodies that connect pre and postgalnglionic nerves (or fibers)
these are released by the presynaptic cells, diffuse across the synaptic cleft (space) and bind to receptors in the membrane of postsynaptic cells
What stimulates the release of neurotransmitters across the synaptic cleft?
electrical impulses or action potentials sent from the neuron cell body in the CNS through an axon to the ganglion where the synaptic connection is made
term associated with parasympathetic activity
- (your colon is working hard to digest food during parasympathetic activity)
term associated with sympathetic activity
- (you get an adrenalin rush in a fight or flight situation during sympathetic activity)
Name 2 parasympathetic receptors
What are muscarinic and nicotinic agonists? Give examples
- drugs that interact with muscarinic or nicotinic receptors and stimulate the PNS
- cholinergic, cholinomimetic, or parasympathomimetic
How are sympathetic receptors classified?
- alpha (alpha 1 or 2)
- beta (beta 1, 2, or 3)
What are alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic agonists? Give examples
- drugs that interact with alpha and beta receptors and stimulate the SNS
- adregergic or sympathomimetic
some chemicals that interact with SNS receptors are classified as what? (or sympathomimetics)
What type of receptors are found at the effector organs of the PNS (at the ends of the postganglionic fibers)
Muscarinic receptors are activated by _____ amounts of ______
another word for neuroeffector junctions
Name the 3 locations of muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors
- effector organ in PNS
- effector organ in sweat glands
- effector organ in skeletal blood vessels
Name the 3 locations of nicotinic (cholinergic) receptors
- ganglionic synapse in SNS and PNS
- preganglionic innervation of adrenal madulla
- skeletal muscle of somatic nervous system
What type of receptors are found in the heart and renal juxtaglomerular cells?
beta-1 receptors (adrenergic)
What type of receptors are found in smooth muscle of the peripheral vasculature and lungs, the liver, and the skeletal muscle?
beta-2 receptors (adrenergic)
what type of receptors are found in adipose tissue and regulate lipolysis?
beta-3 receptors (adrenergic)
What is a general rule describing nonmetabolic adrenergic affects?
- alpha-adrenergic receptor agonists stimulatebeta-adrenergic receptor agonists inhibit
In the general rule describing nonmetabolic adrenergic affects, what does it mean when it states that alpha-adrenergic receptor agonists stimulate? And what is an exception to the rule?
- They produce contraction of vascular smooth muscles and contraction of cardiac muscle
- exception: alpha 1 receptor activation in the intestinal smooth muscle results in inhibition or decreased muscle tone (constipation)
In the general rule describing nonmetabolic adrenergic affects, what does it mean when it states that beta-adrenergic receptor agonists inhibit? And what is an exception to the rule?
- they produce relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles
- exception: beta 1 receptors in the heart stimulate (both rate and force of cardiac muscle contraction) which results in tachycardia.