Biology II

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anime1003
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62955
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Biology II
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2011-02-12 13:53:32
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Bio exam
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Bio exam I
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  1. Parsimony
    Simplest answer (least amount of changes)
  2. Phylogenetic trees
    Represent evolutionary history and relatedness
  3. Clade
    Includes common and cestor and all offspring
  4. Monophyletic
    Common ancestor and all offspring
  5. Polyphyletic
    offspring but no common ancestor
  6. paraphyletic
    common ancestor but not all offspring
  7. Groups are more closely related if...
    They share a more recent common ancesstor
  8. You have the same tree if...
    you rotate branches
  9. star phylogeny
    Unknown relationships
  10. synapomorphies
    Shared, derived characteristics
  11. out group
    closely related, but not part of the clade
  12. synapomorphies can be...
    molecular
  13. Homoplasy (convergent evolution)
    Similarities due to environmental pressure ( not ancestory)
  14. Classification order
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genious
    • Species
  15. Genious
    First, Capitalized, Italisized
  16. Species
    second, Not Capitalized, Italisized
  17. How many kingdoms are there?
    8
  18. Domains
    Encompase many kingdoms
  19. Archea
    • Not bacterium
    • ancient organisms
  20. 3 domains
    • Archea
    • Bacteria
    • Eukaryote
  21. Domain Eukaryote
    • Cell structure
    • Nucleus- membrane bound
    • (multicellular)
  22. Protista-Protozoan group
    Green plants, fungi, animals, protists
  23. Endosymbosis Theory
    • Earliy cells cannot produce efficient ATP withou mitochondira
    • Eukaryotes engulfed the prokaryote (Mitochondrian)
    • The Mitochondian cell living withing the larger cell began to produce ATP for the larger call
  24. Evidence for Endosymbosis theory
    Mitochondirans have their own genetic makeup
  25. Animal Characteristics
    • Cell structue
    • Tissue types
    • Nutrition
  26. Eukaryotes (characteristics)
    • Multicellular
    • Plasma Membrane
    • No Cell Wall
  27. 4 types of tissue
    • Epithelial
    • Connective (cologen)
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
  28. Heterotrophic
    Canot create their own energy
  29. Excess energy
    Stored as fat (glychogen)
  30. Body plans
    • # of layers of tissue
    • Symetry
    • Body Cavities- space between organ and skin
    • Embryotic developement
    • How energy is aquired
  31. Tissue
    group of interconnected cells of similar structure that perfom a similar function
  32. Embryotic tissue layers
    • 0-1 Sponges
    • 2 animals
    • 3 animals
  33. Diploblastic
    • 2 tissue layers
    • all are animals
  34. Triploblastic
    • 3 layers
    • all are animals
  35. Embryotic layers (in order)
    • Ectoderm
    • Mesoderm
    • Endoderm
    • gut
  36. Asymetry
    • not symetry (sponge)
    • primative
  37. Bilateral symetry
    • Single plane of symetry ( right and laft side)
    • more evolved
  38. Radial Symetry
    Multiple planes of symetry
  39. Coelom
    Body cavity
  40. Aceolomate
    no cavity
  41. Psuedocoelomate
    One cavity
  42. ceolomate
    many body cavities
  43. Advantages of body cavity
    • Prevents compression of digestive system
    • allows for larger body
    • protects internal organs
    • allos tube-within-a-tube system
    • Can provide body support
  44. Hydrostatic Skeleton
    Fluid filled Psuedocoelom
  45. Protosome
    • Spiral cleavage (twisting cells)
    • Blastospore becomes mouth
    • Solid mesoderm
  46. Deuterostome
    • Radial Clevage (no twisitng of cells)
    • Blastpore becomes anus
    • hollow mesoderm
  47. Blastospore
    first oppening in cell
  48. Gastrovascular Cavities
    Single mouth- food and waste go in and out same place
  49. Tube-within-a-tube
    • seperate waste and intake
    • asembly line process
    • Specialization of organs
  50. Multicellular
    calls specialize to help the whole
  51. Colononial
    groups of the same cellular organism
  52. Molecular phylogony
    • Alternative to morphology
    • Compare RNA (RNA has fewr mutations than DNA)
  53. Lophotrochozoa
    Grow by enlarging their bodies
  54. Ecdysozoa
    Growth by molting
  55. suspension
    Filter food from the air and water
  56. deposit feeders
    Eat their surroundings
  57. fluid feeders
    Nectar, blood, fecies
  58. Bulk feeders
    everything else
  59. Carnivores
    • eat other animals
    • teeth predict diet - have Cainine teeth
  60. Herbivores
    • eat plants
    • Molars for grinding
  61. Omnivores
    • Eat plants and other animals
    • have cainines and molars
  62. Parasites
    • Don't usualy kill hosts
    • attatch to hosts
  63. sessile
    mobile, can move
  64. Types of limbs
    • jointed
    • unjointed
  65. Homologus
    traits devlope from common ancestors
  66. DII (Distal-Less) Gene
    Map the location of the bodies extremities from the main axis
  67. Reproduction
    • Fragmentation
    • Budding
    • Paratogenisis
  68. Fragmentation
    discarded body parts can form new organisms
  69. Budding
    Can reform som body parts
  70. Parantogenesis
    eggs don't need to be fertalized
  71. Those thta can produce asexualy...
    can produce sexualy
  72. Organism that can asexually produce will more often sexually produce because...
    creates genetic diversity
  73. Monecious
    both sex organs in one individual
  74. Dioecious
    seperate sexes
  75. Fetilization
    • internal
    • external
  76. Viviparity
    • live birth (eggs are hatched inside mother)
    • Mother provides nutrients
  77. Ovipery
    • lays eggs
    • hard shell, tempersture resistant
  78. Ovovipary
    • eggs hatch inside mother
    • Mother Doesn't provide nutirents
  79. Metamorphosis
    changes form as life cycle proggresses
  80. Holometabulous- standard metemorphesis
    Egg, larva, pupa, adult
  81. Hemimetabolus
    • Has Nymph stage
    • Egg, nymph, adult
  82. Nymph
    Small Adult
  83. Which species has the most Phyla
    Anthropoda (1,100,000)
  84. 8 most populated phyla
    • Porifera
    • Cnidaria
    • Annelida
    • Mollusca
    • Nematoda
    • Anthropada
    • Chordasta
  85. Porifera
    Most primative- sponges
  86. Cnidarians
    • Radial symetry
    • Diploplastic
    • Gastrovasular cavity
    • (jellyfish)
  87. Platyhelminthes
    • Bilateral symetry
    • Triplobastic
    • aceolomate
    • (flat worms)
  88. Annelida
    • Segmented worms
    • ceolom cavity
    • leeches
  89. Mollusca
    • True ceolom
    • not segmented
    • often a shell
    • (Snalis)
  90. Nematoda
    • not segmented
    • many are parasites
    • ecdysis
    • Psuedoceolom
  91. Infection due to nematods
    • Elephantism
    • Heart worm
    • intestinal worms
    • eye worms
  92. Anthropoda
    • largest phylum
    • Ecdysis
    • jointed limbs
  93. Phylum Chordata
    • Deusterostomes
    • Notochord
  94. Notochord
    Internal strengthaning rod (spine)
  95. 4 tissue types
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscle
    • Nervous
  96. Epithelial
    • Sheets of cells
    • basement membrane
  97. connective tissue
    • extracellular matrix
    • fibers
  98. Muscle tissue
    • Most abundant tissue in animals
    • Cells contact
  99. 3 types of muscle tissue
    • skeleton
    • cardiac
    • smooth muscle (liver)
  100. Basement membrane
    barriar to external forces
  101. Nervous tissue
    • neurons
    • signals by chemicals and electricity
  102. Levels of orginization
    • atoms/molocules
    • cells
    • tissues
    • organs
    • organ systems
    • organisms
  103. Ratio of surface area to volume
    determines the need for organs
  104. large volume =
    longer time for diffusion
  105. S/V
    determines cell size
  106. low S/V=
    internal organs
  107. S/V=
    V^(2/3)
  108. Heat production=
    used energy
  109. Ways to measure metobolic rate
    • heat produced
    • O2 in compared to CO2 out
  110. warm blooded
    creates metabolic heat
  111. Ectotherm
    Cold Blooded
  112. Endotherm
    Warm blooded
  113. Larger animals have...(metabolism)?
    a per gram smaller metobolic rate
  114. smaller species have higher...? (metabolic rate)
    • Breathing rate
    • heart rate
  115. Matabolic rate depends on...?
    • Age, Sex, Size
    • Amount of available oxygen
    • Hormone balance
    • body temperature
    • time of day
  116. Adaptations for larger surface area
    • Gill
    • Villi
    • Capilaries
  117. Body Regulates...?
    • Blood ph
    • Blood Oxygen
    • Electrolytes
    • blood glucose
  118. sensor=
    thermometer
  119. integrator=
    thermostat
  120. efector=
    furnace
  121. Negative feedbacl
    stimulus responds in oposing direction
  122. positive feedback
    body reacts same as stimulus
  123. Positive feedback (examples)
    • coughing
    • blood clotting
    • child birth contractions
  124. 4 methods of heat exchange
    • radiation
    • conduction
    • evaporation
    • convection
  125. cooling mechanisms (2)
    • vasodilation
    • sweating
  126. Warming mechanisms
    • vasoconstriction
    • shivering
  127. heat loss centers activated
    • blood dialates
    • sweat glands stimulated
    • respitory centers stimulated
  128. heat gain centers activated
    • blood near skin constricts
    • shivering
    • increase in respiration and heat production
  129. vasodilation
    open blood vessles
  130. vasoconstriction
    close blood vessles
  131. insulation
    • fat
    • fur
    • feathers
  132. evaporation
    • panting
    • sweeating
  133. metabolic heat production
    shivering
  134. thermogenisis
    breakdown of brown fat
  135. Behavioral response to external stimulus
    • into/out of the sun
    • torpor
    • Migration
  136. torpor
    Inactive period (hibernation, aestivation)
  137. Bergmans rule
    northern poulations have larger bodies than their southern cousins
  138. Allen's rule*
    species in cold climates have shorter apendages

    * disproved, could be physiological
  139. dieretic
    loss of water
  140. Electrolytes
    dissolved ions in bodily fluid
  141. Common electrolytes
    • sodium
    • chlorine
    • potassium
    • calcium
  142. diffussion
    moving from high to low concentration
  143. osmosis
    water diffussion
  144. Active transport
    uses energy to force against concentration gradient
  145. % of salinity

    Fresh water
    Ocean
    • <1%
    • 3%
  146. osmoconformers
    • animals match their environment
    • mostly marine animals
  147. Osmoregulators
    adjust internal concentration
  148. Hyoptonic to ocean:
    Problems
    Solutions
    • loose water by osmosis
    • gain electrolytes by diffussion

    • Drink water
    • reduce amount of urine
    • active transport
  149. Hypertonic to fresh water
    Problems
    Solutions
    • Gain water by osmosis
    • loose electrolytes by diffussion

    • Don't drink water
    • lotes of urine
    • add electrolytes in diet and by active transport
  150. Channel
    allows ions to pass through the membrane
  151. carrier
    uses duffussion to pass electrolytes through membrane
  152. Cotransporters
    • active transport that doesn't need ATP
    • Energy from one mechanism creates energy for another (genarator pump)
  153. Symporter
    uses a first molecuel to move a second one in the same direction
  154. Antiporter
    uses first molecule to move a second in the opposite direction
  155. TMAO
    trimethylamine oxide
  156. In Vitro
    Outside the body
  157. Cotransporter does what when dealing with both fresh and sea water...?
    flips sides of the cell membrane
  158. Land animals (water mechanisms)
    • Waxy cuticle
    • Spiracles
  159. Malphigain tubules
  160. Spiracle
    small cell group that guards the air opennings in insects
  161. Nitrogenous waste
    ussually made into amonia
  162. Amonia is coverted to ___ and ___ in non aquatic animals
    • urea
    • uric acid
  163. Uric acid
    not soluble in water
  164. mamals convert amonia to...?
    urea
  165. Nephron structure (in order)
    • Glomerulus
    • Proximal tubules
    • Loop of Henle
    • Distal Tubules
    • Collecting duct
  166. Glomerulus
    forces excess liquid from blood
  167. Bowmans capsule
    catches excess liquid from Glomerulus
  168. Proximal tubules
    reabsorbs water into tubules
  169. Loop of Henle
    Reduces water, then salt content (adjusts for appropiate volume of waste)
  170. Vasa recta
    surrounds loop of henle, absorbs water and salt
  171. Distal tubule
    adjust final concentration levels
  172. collecting duct
    gathers excess water and salt removed in the distal tubule
  173. ADH
    • brain chemical
    • causes less urination

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