Plasma+ cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets)
What is the difference between plasma and serum?
Serum= plasma- fibrinogen
What is in plasma?
albumin, and fibrinogen, calcium, potassium, sodium and chloride, and lipids
Functions of Blood
transport, regulation, and protection/ defence
The production of blood cells
The production of red blood cells
The protein in red blood cells that carry oxygen ( 4 hems perglobin so it carries 4 O2 molecules)
The natural destruction of red blood cells due to age (10% intravascular/ 90% extravascular)
The production of leukocytes (white blood cells)
A white blood cell that contains secondary, also known as specific, cytoplasmic granules. 3 types- Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
White blood cell that does not contain secondary granules. 2 types- Lymphocytes and Monocytes
cells squeeze through the endothelium and crawl to site of injury
chemical distress signal from damaged tissue to WBC’s
White blood cell
Red blood cell
Increased number leukocytes of in the blood
Decreased number of leukocytes in the blood
Increased number neutrophils of in the blood
Decreased number of Neutrophils in the blood
Increased number of eosinophils in the blood
Increased number of monocytes in the blood
Increased number of lymphocytes in the blood
Decreased number of lymphocytes in the blood
How do you calculate Blood volume?
75mls/kg of lean body weight/ can lose up to 25% before it’s critical
Pack Cell Volume/ the % of whole blood that is made up of RBC’s
Total Protein/ fibrinogen, Albumin, and Globulins- normal for most species is 6.0-8.0 g/dl
Total protein without Fibrinogen
Made in the liver and is necessary for clotting/ < or = 5% of total protein
Made in the liver, is important for transport, and helps maintain osmotic pressure/ 30-50% of total protein
Consists of many different proteins, some are immunoglobulins, IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, others responsible for binding heme
WBC, agranulocytic, Non-phagocytic, #1 responder to viruses and cancer, most common in pigs and ruminants, only one not matured in bone marrow, 3 types= t-lymph, b-lymph, and natural killer, Non-specific and Specific immunity
WBC, agranulocytic, Macrophages, Responds to Chronic bacterial infections, fugal infections, and foreign material, Largest of WBC’s, accounts for about 5% of WBC’s, helps lymphocytes with specific immunity
WBC, granulocytic, #1 responder to bacteria, most abundant WBC in Cats and dogs, non-staining granules, pink/ light blue cytoplasm, segmented nucleus
WBC, granulocytic, # 1 responder to allergies and parasites, accounts for about 5% of circulating WBC, red staining granules
WBC, granulocytic, responds to allergic response, least prevalent and understood, heparin and histamine in granules, blue staining granules
What do all blood cells start out as?
Pluripotent Stem Cells (PPSC)
Hormone released by Kidney and sent to red bone marrow in response to hypoxia
insufficient levels of oxygen in blood and tissue
made of two parts (red and white pulp) that has a giant storage capacity for blood
Blood sinuses in the spleen where large volumes of blood are store and can be released when needed
sinuses in the spleen the store white-cells and aid in immunity
Breakdown the word hemoglobin-
heme= pigment and globin= protein
What does blood transport?
O2, waste, Thrombocytes, hormones, and blood cells
What does blood help regulate?
Temp, pH, homeostasis, hydration
dehydrationàlow water content in blood
over-hydrationàhigh water content in blood
How much of the body is blood?
About how much blood can a 4x4 hold?
About 10-15mls soaked
Reasons for anemia?
Blood loss, hemolysis, RBC destruction, decreased production, decreased hemoglobin, and more
Where should we draw blood from?
Cats and dogs- jugular, cephalic, or saphenous
Bovine- jug, tailvein
Avian- jug, wing vein
Rabbit- ear vein, cephalic
Pir- Ear vein, vena cava
EDTA: where is it and what does it do?
In purple tops, it is an anticoagulant that binds with calcium
destruction of erythrocytes
presence of fat material in plasma or serum
Increase in both PCV and TP=
Decrease in both PCV and TP=
acute blood loss or hemodilution
Increased PCV and normal TP=
Decrease in PCV and normal TP=
hemolysis/hemolytic anemia or decreased RBC production