Lecture #3

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brb588
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63015
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Lecture #3
Updated:
2011-01-31 09:06:29
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THE ‘HOW ‘OF TRAINING: INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES
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  1. The ABCs of learning outcomes
    • Affective outcomes (Attitudes &Beliefs)
    • Behavioral outcomes (Skills)
    • Cognitive outcomes (Knowledge)
  2. Lecture method
    • trainer verbally communicates training to audience
    • primarily one way communication (trainer to audience)
    • great for cognitive outcomes
  3. Advantages of lecture method
    • effiecient way to communicate a lot of info
    • useful for large groups
    • pretty cheap
    • most learners are comfortable w/ the format
  4. Disadvantages of lecture method
    • pretty passive
    • quality is dependent upon lecturer skill
    • knowing-doing gap
  5. AV method
    • audio/slides/visuals
    • generally used with lecture
    • great for cognitive outcomes
  6. Advantages of AV method
    • cheap in the long run
    • consistent
    • flexible
  7. Disadvantages of AV method
    • assumes access to technology
    • even more passive than lectures
    • development costs
  8. Methods of Training
    • Presentation (lecture, a/v)
    • Hands-on (On-the-job training (OJT), Simulations, Case studies, Business games, Role plays, Behavior modeling)
    • Group
  9. OJT
    • New employees learning by watching others perform the job and imitating them
    • very informal
  10. OJT: Job instruction training
    “Tell, show, do, and review”
  11. Advantages of JIT
    • can save time and money
    • increased learning transfer
    • active form of learning
    • immediate feedback
  12. Disadvantages of JIT
    • can be very unstandardized
    • can temporarily decrease job performance
    • can learn the wrong things, too
    • trainers might not know how to train
  13. OJT: Vestibule training
    training that occurs next to work while using the same resources and facilities
  14. OJT: self directed learning (SDL)
    employees determine the pace they need for training and take responsibility for all aspects
  15. Advantages to SDL
    • learn at own pace
    • instant feedback
    • fewer trainers needed
    • consistent materials
    • multiple sites are easier
    • fits employees schedules
  16. Disadvantages to SDL
    • trainees must be motivated to learn
    • high development costs
    • high development time
  17. OJT: apprenticeship
    work study method combining OJT and classroom training
  18. Advantages to apprenticeships
    • earn pay while learning
    • effective learning on the why and how
    • could offer fulltime employment upon completion
  19. Disadvantages to apprenticeships
    • limited access to minorities and women
    • no guarantee of employment
    • training can often result in narrow expertise
  20. Hands-On: Simulations
    • represents a "real-life" work situation
    • trainees decisions should result in outcomes that closely mirror what would happen on the job
    • relies on fidelity, the degree learning resembles real world context
    • video games are stupid
  21. Advantages to simulations
    • Provides a high fidelity learning context
    • low risk environment for learning
    • immediate feedback
    • potential harm minimized
  22. Disadvantages to simulations
    • can seem artificial
    • expensive to develop and maintain
    • cannot mimic all situations, can lead to overconfidence
  23. Hands-on: Case studies
    • NOT GOOD BY THEMSELVES
    • How did an org deal with a specific situation?
    • Trainees must analyze & critique actions taken, indicate appropriate actions, suggest would could have been done differently
    • Employees must use the discovery process
  24. Case study strengths
    • Engaging experience
    • Illustrates how concepts are interrelated
    • Make me appreciate contextual differences more
  25. Case study weaknesses
    • Can seem scripted or unreal
    • A lot of info for transfer
    • Debreif can make or break success
  26. Overview of role plays
    • Acting out roles
    • Interpersonal responses are the primary focus
    • Outcomes rely on the emotional reactions of other role players
  27. Strengths of role plays
    • Very active learning
    • Can promote continous learning through practice
    • Promotes role reversal
  28. Weaknesses of role plays
    • Only as good as the actors themselves
    • Must be meaningful to the job
    • Debrief can make or break success
  29. Overview of Hands-on: Behavior modeling
    • Involves presenting trainees with a model with demonstrates key behaviors for the trainees to replicate
    • Gives opportunity for them to practice
    • Feedback is given post practice
    • Relies of vicarious reinforcement (learning by seeing consequences for others)
  30. Strengths of Behavior modeling
    • Learn from the experts
    • Builds self-efficacy quickly
    • Mistakes are quickly found and fixed
  31. Weakness of Behavior modeling
    • Too many key behaviors can be confusing
    • Models must be seen as credible
    • Time consuming to develop and implement
  32. Group building: Adventure learning
    • Development of teamwork & leadership skills using structured outdoor activities
    • Best for developing (if anything) skills & attitudes related to group effectiveness such as:
    • Self-awareness & problem-solving
    • Conflict management & Risk-taking
  33. Group Building: Team training
    • Coordinating the perfomance of individuals working to achieve a common goal
    • Teams effectively develop procedures to
    • identify & solve errors
    • coordinate info-gathering
    • positively reinforce each other
  34. Team performance
    • Tied to teamwork and taskwork
    • 3 components
    • Behavior– communication, coordination, etc.
    • Knowledge – shared mental models, procedures, norms, etc.
    • Attitude – morale, cohesion, potency, etc.
  35. Group Building: Action learning
    • "Service learning"
    • Giving teams an actual business problem, having them work on solving it, committing to an action plan, hold them accountable for carrying it out.

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