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Humans have hearing from 20 Hzà
- 17,000 Hz
Dogs 20 Hzà 30,000 Hz
Cats 30 Hzà 45,000 Hz (2 octaves higher than a human)
Rodents 30 Hzà 80,000 Hz
Bats 13,000 Hzà 130,000 Hz
- Reptiles 50 Hzà 1500 Hz
Dogs see 20-50 and
- cats 20-75 to 20-100
Behind the retina is a mirror like structure
which reflects the light back and then can be
detected by the rod.
Ways to increase stride length:
Shrinking the clavicle
- Flexible spines
- Various foot forms
walking on full foot (humans, bears, raccoons),
good for stability and walking
walking on the balls of the foot; increases leg
length which increases stride length (relative to plantigrade) this increases speed but is a little less stable. Cats, dogs, birds. Predators.
walking on the tips of toes, increases stride
length even further, increase speed, but less stable. Deer, antelope. Prey animals
continues development postnatal. born naked, blind, and helpless. Ex. Kitten, mice, puppies
somewhat mature at birth, mobile, can
fend for themselves. Ex. Lamb
is 8-12 weeks and again at 8-10 months
how close you can get to an animal before it
an individual of a domesticated species that is
no longer integrated into human environment
Traits that favor domestication
5 consequences of domestication
- 1. Neoteny
- 2. Reproductive Efficiency increases: early onset reproduction (puberty), increase cycling & litter size
- 3. Decrease in stress level: stress hormones are decreased, decrease in the tissue that makes the hormones, smaller adrenal glands4. Decrease in survival skills5. Increased evidence of genetically unfavorable traits
Attitudes towards Animals
Utilitarian- interest in animals as resources
Humanistic- interest as animals as companions
Moralistic- interest in animals as moral subjects
Naturalistic- interest & concern for wildlife
Ecological- interest & concern for wildlife & ecosystems.
- 1. Hunger and thirst
- 2. Discomfort
- 3. pain
- 4. Freedom to express normal behaviors
- 5. Fear and distress
3 R’s for animal research
species that are active at dusk and dawn
species that are active at day
came from 3 that were captured in 1930 in Syria. have large ear with well developed
hearing. Nocturnal, solitary, will bite and claw , can hibernate & drop body temp to 1 degree above room temp. Life span is 2-3 years, need
originated in South America (Peru) (used for
food) and brought to Europe in the 16th century. Tailless, social (sets up a hierarchy) , don’t usually bite, natural habitat is grassy
meadows, don’t burrow but will use existing burrows, don’t jump but run well, crepuscular, subject to heat stroke, life span 6-8 years, provoke allergies
(one of the worst for causing allergies),.
GUINEA PIG (CAVY)
Nocturnal, from Asia, domesticated by the
Chinese and Japanese, do not concentrate urine or conserve water- need lots of water, tend to be docile & only bite if scared, social, if you plan on housing males together you must wean them together. Like places to hide, known or genetic diversity, life span ~ 2 yrs.
nocturnal, from Central Asia for rat terrier
competitions, drink a lot of water, very adaptable, opportunistic , docile,trainable, social, not nearly as territorial as mice. Very strong, sweat through paws and tails
from Mt regions of south america, captivated for their pelts, social, nocturnal, heat sensitive, docile, can project urine w/ accuracy, trainable, 10 yr life span
illegal in ca, wide tolerance for climate change- bioinvasion, eat seeds, diurnal in the wild, nocturnal in captivity, conserve water, burrowers, highly developed claws, socially monogamous, 2-4 yr life span, can have tail slip.
domesticated in rome, descendant of the rabbit, very heat sensitive, Not a rodent but a lagamorph, plantigrade, corpuscular, gregarious, territorial, 5-10 yr life span
Name and explain 2 extreme viewpoints associated with human-animal interactions according to Kathleen Morgan/ Notional Animal Interest Alliance
- Animal exploitation- "humans have absolute dominion over animals. Can be used or abused for any purpose."
- Animal Liberation- "animals should not be put to work or to produce for our benefit in any way. Eliminate all types of animal use as well as abuse. Keeping pets is enslavement.
Canadian ethicist David Sztybel IDs people who use animals as _______
all having some view of 'welfare' and that those people who use animals rationalize the use.
behavior controlled by the consequences that arise from executing that behavior. The two recognized consequences are reinforcement or punishment.
Reinforcement in general, happens ____ with the action of the animal.
usually occurs AFTER the action has occurred
is often necessary to provide instantaneous positive reinforcement for actions done at a distance
training the animal to respond and execute a behavior that is incompatible with the behavior you don’t like
What 2 sensory organs must cats have for the righting reflex to work?
- vestibular apparatus
greatly reduced, rudimentary or degenerate structure; a structure that is no longer needed in that species so its physical shape is minimized
exposing an animal to all the elements that it will experience in its life; similar to imprinting in allowing the animal to identify what are individuals within its community/living group.