Pharmacology

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Author:
sthomp88
ID:
63038
Filename:
Pharmacology
Updated:
2011-01-30 21:56:51
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chapter four neurotransmitters
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week two
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  1. The passage of a nerve impulse (action potential) along a nerve fiber is called what?
    conduction
  2. chemical substance that permits the electrical impulses conducted by the nerve fibers to cross the synapse and stimulate receptors
    neurotransmitters
  3. What is the chemical neurotransmitter of the PNS at the effector organ?
    Acetylcholine (Ach)
  4. What is the chemical neurotransmitter of the SNS at the effector organ?
    norepinephrine (Nor)
  5. in general the chemical neurotransmitter cholinergic nerves release is __________ and adrenergic nerves release ________
    • acetylcholine (Ach)
    • norepinephrine (Nor)
  6. What is the neurotransmitter at the neuroeffector junction (effector organ) at the end of the postganglionic fiber in the PNS?
    acetylcholine
  7. What is the neurotransmitter at the synaptic junctions between the preganglionic and postganglionic fibers in both the PNS and SNS?
    acetylcholine
  8. What is the neurotransmitter at the neuroeffector junction between the preganglionic sympathetic nerve ending and the adrenal medullary secretory cells?
    acetylcholine
  9. What is the neurotransmitter at the neuroeffector junction between the postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings and the smooth muscle walls of blood vessels in skeletal muscle?
    acetylcholine
  10. What is the neurotransmitter at the postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings in sweat glands innervated by sympathetic cholinergic postganglionic fibers?
    acetylcholine
  11. Parasympathetic fibers have ______ perganglionic fibers; sympathetic fibers have _______ preganglionic fibers
    • long
    • short
  12. parasympathetic fibers have ________ postganglionic fibers; sympathetic fibers have ______ postganglionic fibers
    • short
    • long
  13. the neurotransmitter at the parasympathetic synapse is ________; the neurotransmitter at the sympathetic synapse is _________
    • Acetylcholine
    • Acetylocholine
  14. The nerotransmitter at the PNS effector organ is ________; the neurotransmitter at the SNS effector organ is ___________
    • Acetylcholine
    • Norepinephrine
  15. parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers ________ have mylenated preganglionic fibers
    do
  16. parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers ________ have mylenated postganglionic fibers
    don't (they are nonmylenated)
  17. parasympathetic activity leaves the CNS at _______ _______ level; sympathetic activity leaves the CNS at ________ ________ level
    • cranial sacral
    • upper lumbar
  18. there are __-__ postganglionic fibers in parasympathetic activity which is a ________ effect; there are __-__ postganlionic fibers in sympathetic activity which is a _______ effect
    • 1-2
    • local (does not fire as a unit)
    • 1-20
    • generalized (fires as a unit)
  19. What is the neurotransmitter at the effector organ of the sympathetic nervous system?
    Norepinephrine
  20. The pre and postganglionic nerves or fibers are connected by what?
    ganglion or synapse
  21. preganglionic fibers in the PNS leave the CNS at the ______ and _______ levels of the spinal cord, along with cranial nerves __, __, __, and __
    • cranial
    • sacral
    • III, VII, IX, X
  22. The vagus nerve has several branches that supply fibers to what 3 structures?
    • heart
    • lungs
    • most abdominal organs
  23. ____________ fibers innervate cardiac and smooth muscles, visceral organs, secretory glands, and all neuromscular junctions
    parasympathetic
  24. preganglionic fibers in the SNS leave the CNS at the _________ and ____________ levels of the spinal cord
    • thoracic
    • upper lumbar
  25. When does the sympathetic nervous system fire a response as a unit with actions occurring in many areas of the body?
    during acute stress
  26. Why is the adrenal medulla an exception to general anatomic rules?
    because it is part of the SNS, but it's neurotransmitter at the effector organ is acetylcholine
  27. true or false. The adrenal medulla is part of the SNS; it acts as its own postganglionic fiber, so anatomically, no postganglionic fiber exists
    true
  28. secretory cells of the adrenal medulla are innervated by a _____________ fiber with ___________ as the neurotransmitter
    • preganglionic
    • acetylcholine
  29. What 2 substances does the adrenal medulla secrete into the body?
    epinephrine and norepinephrine
  30. Why is nerve innervation by the SNS to skeletal muscles, blood vessels, and sweat glands an exception to the general anatomic rules?
    because nerve innervation is accomplished through parasympathetic postganglionic fibers with acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter at the effector organ
  31. When acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter, the fiber is described as ____________
    cholinergic
  32. true or false. adrenergic skeltal muscles, blood vessels, and sweat glands are innervated by cholinergic postganglionic fibers. (exception to the rule)
    true
  33. The CNS controls the stimulus, and when one division of the ANS is activated, the other is what?
    inhibited
  34. True or false. When one division of the ANS is inhibited, the other division can take over and stimulate receptors in that division
    true

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