Theory 4

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Theory 4
2011-01-30 22:36:17

Chap. 1
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  1. Discipline consisting of thoughts and ideas about morality, judging actions right or wrong.
  2. Desirable attitudes
  3. Branch of ethics that recommends specific actions as right and justified. Ehtical thinking that guides human behavior
    Normative ethics
  4. Ethical studies that explore the nature of moral judgement and moral concept
  5. Branch of normative ethics that emphasizes duties, duty, obligation, regardless of consequences
  6. Goal or end.
    Branch of normative ethics that emphasizes consequences of actions. Telling a "little white lie" OK
  7. Which branch of normative ethics emphasizes duties?
  8. What are the 3 basic duties of deontology?
    • Absolute
    • Prima facie
    • Conditional
  9. Duty is binding under all circumstances - ie: not killing innocent people
    Absolute deontology
  10. Duty that is obvious by circumstances surrounding it - ie: treating patient in pain and making scheduled patient wait
    Prima facie (Deontology)
  11. Commitment that comes into being after certain conditions are met - ie: unemployment if person is looking for a job
    Conditional duty (Deontology)
  12. Consequentialism, moral position that includes consequentialist theories.
  13. Who were the British utilitarian philosophers in the 19th century?
    • Jeremy Bentham
    • John Stuart Mill
  14. What are the 3 ethical theories?
    • Utilitarianism
    • Kantian Ethics
    • Virtue
  15. What are the traits of utilitarianism?
    • Maximal happiness for everyone
    • Good consequences
    • Desirable results, least misery
  16. What are the 2 versions of utilitarian?
    • Act Utilitarian
    • Rule Utilitarian
  17. Concerned with individual acts.
    Acting in a certain way (keeping promises), promotes happiness, which is a good action.
    Act Utilitarian
  18. Concerned with the rule from which an action is derived.
    Best way of acting in given situation.
    Can avoid problems that act can not.
    Actions either right or wrong based on their consequences.
    Rule Utilitarian
  19. Keeping promises would be which utilitarian?
  20. What involves performing the right action regardless of the consequences?
    Certain acts are morally right because they are intrinsically right regardless of their consequences.
    Kantian Ethics
  21. What are the traits of Kantian ethics?
    • Absolute-moral principles
    • Unmodifiable
    • Inescapable
    • Inferred by reasoning
    • Generalized
  22. Who were the early philosophers of virtue ethics?
    Socrates and Plato
  23. Virtue ethics deals with?
    • Character traits of individuals.
    • Excellent character = moral person
    • Think and act best way for given situation
  24. Examples of virtue ethics
    • Kindness to animals
    • Honesty in financial dealings
    • Truth telling
  25. Deals with issues like justice, rights and equality
    Social philosophy
  26. Born with rights attached by nature vs. gonvernment
    Liberalism and Rights
  27. What did the constitution grant?
    Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of happiness
  28. Rights are not _____?
  29. What are the traits of rights?
    • Can be revoked or suspended
    • Guaranteed for all persons
    • Privileges not guaranteed (though not denied)
  30. Not guaranteed.
    Must be earned from hard work.
  31. Deals with the wants and needs of people in the real world
    Rawl's Theory of Justice
  32. Social justice as a fair deal which members of society negotiate and abide
    Rawl's theory of justice
  33. Normative ethics is a branch of what?
  34. What are the branches of normative ethics?
    • Deontology
    • Teleology