medical terminology

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medical terminology
2011-01-31 02:42:02

the terms
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  1. abdominocentesis
    the surgical puncture of the abdominal cavity to remove fluid
  2. acronym
    a word formed from the intitial letter of the major parts of a compound term
  3. acute
    a condition has a rapid onset, a severe course, and a relatively short duration
  4. angiography
    the process of producing a radiographic (x-ray) study of the blood vessels after the injection to make these blood vessels visible
  5. appendectomy
    surgical removal of the appendix
  6. arteriosclerosis
    the abnormal hardening of the walls of an artery or arteries
  7. arthralgia
    pain in a joint or joints
  8. colostomy
    a surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface
  9. cyanosis
    a blue discoloration of the skin caused by a lack of adequate oxygen in the blood
  10. dermatologist
    a physician who speciallizes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the skin
  11. diagnosis
    the identification of a disease
  12. diarrhea
    the frequent flow of loose or watery stools
  13. edema
    swelling caused by excess fluid in the body
  14. endarterial
    pertaining to the interior or lining of an artery
  15. eponym
    a disease, structure, operation, or procedure named for the person who discovered or described it first
  16. erythrocyte
    mature red blood cells
  17. fissure
    a groove or crack-like sore of the skin
  18. fistula
    an abnormal passage, usually between 2 internal organs, or leading from an organ to the surface of the body
  19. gastritis
    inflammation of the stomach
  20. gastroenteritis
    inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
  21. gastrosis
    any disease of the stomach
  22. hemorrhage
    the loss of a large amount of blood in a short time
  23. hepatomegaly
    abnormal enlargement of the liver
  24. hypertension
    higher than normal blood pressure
  25. hypotension
    lower than normal blood pressure
  26. infection
    the invasion of the body by a pathogenic organism
  27. interstitial
    between but not within the parts of a tissue
  28. intramuscular
    within the muscle
  29. lesion
    a pathologic change of the tissues due to disease or injury
  30. mycosis
    any abnormal condition or disease caused by a fungus
  31. myopathy
    any pathologic change or diseasse of muscle tissue
  32. neonatology
    the study of disorders of the newborn
  33. palpitation
    a pounding or racing heart
  34. phalanges
    more than one finger or toe bones
  35. poliomyelitis
    a viral infection of the gray matter of the spinal cord
  36. prognosis
    prediction of the probable course and outcome of a disorder
  37. prostate
    the male gland that lies under the bladder and surrounds the urethra
  38. pyoderma
    any acute, inflammatory, pus- forming bacterial skin infection, such as impetigo
  39. pyrosis

    discomfort due to the regurgitation of stomach acid upward into the esophagus
  40. remission
    the temporary, partial, or complete disappearance of the symptoms of a disease without having achieved a cure
  41. supination
    the act of rotating the arm so that the palm of the hand is forward or upward
  42. suppuration
    the formation or discharge of pus
  43. supracostal
    above or outside the ribs
  44. symptom
    subjective evidence of a disease

    (evaluated or measured by the patient)
  45. syndrome
    a set of signs and symptoms that occur together as part of a specific disease process
  46. tonsillitis
    inflammation of the tonsils
  47. trauma
    wound or injury

    (such as in accident, shooting, ect.)
  48. triage
    the medical screening of patients to determine their relative priority of need and proper place of treatment
  49. viral
    pertaining to a virus
  50. laceration
    a torn or jagged wound or an accidental cut wound
  51. gastralgia
    pain in the stomach

    (stomach ache)
  52. myelopathy
    any pathologic change or disease in the spinal cord
  53. otorhinolaryngology
    study of the ears, nose, and throat
  54. sign
    objective evidence of a disease

    (can be measured or evaluated by patient or others)
  55. inflammation
    a localized response to an injury or destruction of tissues
  56. neuritis
    inflammation of a nerve or nerves
  57. palpation
    an examination technique in which the examiner's hands are used to feel the texture size, consistency, and location of certain body parts.
  58. natal
    pertains to birth
  59. myorrhexis
    tupture of a mucle
  60. patella
  61. yellow bone marrow
    bone tissue that functions as a fat-storage area and is located in the medullary cavity
  62. dawarfism
    short stature
  63. foramen
    the opening in a bone through which the blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass
  64. arthroplasty
    the surgical repair or replacement of a damaged joint
  65. gouty arthritis
    form of arthritis which is characterized by the deposits of uric acid in the joints
  66. chondroplasty
    a surgical repair of cartilage
  67. ultrasonic bone density testing
    test for osteoporosis
  68. primary bone cancer
    a relatively rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone
  69. closed reduction
    the attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation
  70. cardiorrhexis
    rupture of the heart
  71. arterionecrosis
    the tissue death of an artery or arterries
  72. hepatorrhagia
    bleeding from the liver
  73. perinatal
    the times and events surrounding birth
  74. ilium
    part of the hip bone
  75. atresia
    congenital absence of a normal opening or the filure of a structure

    (ex. anus, to be tubular)
  76. genome
    the complete set of an individual's genetic information
  77. abdominal cavity
    contains the major organs of digestion
  78. adenectomy
    the surgical removal of a gland
  79. adenocarcinoma
    a malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue
  80. adenomalacia
    abnormal softening of a gland
  81. adenosclerosis
    abnormal hardening of a gland
  82. anaplasia
    a change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other
  83. anatomy
    the study of body structures
  84. anomaly
    a deviation from normal
  85. anterior
  86. aplasia
    defective development, or the congenital absence, of an organ or tissue
  87. cephalic
    toward the head
  88. chromosomes
    the genetic structures in the cell nucleus made up of DNA.
  89. communicable disease
    any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects

  90. congenital disorder
    an abnormal condition that exists at birth
  91. cytoplasm
    material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
  92. cytology
    the study of the formation, structure,and function of cells

    (chromosomes, DNA, genetics)
  93. distal
    situated farthest from midline or beginning of a body structure
  94. dorsal
    the back of an organ or body
  95. endemic
    the ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group, or area
  96. endocrine glands
    secrete hormones directly into the blood do not have ducts
  97. epidemic
    a sudden widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population group or area
  98. epigastric region
    located above the stomach
  99. etiology
    the study of the causes of diseases
  100. exocrine glands
    they secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to oter organs or out of the body

    (EX. sweat glands)
  101. glands
    specialized cells that secrete material used elsewhere in the body

    (exocrine glands and endocrine glands)
  102. genetic disorder
    a pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene

    (ex. cystic fibrosis, down syndrome)
  103. hemophilia
    genetic blood disorder where blood doesn't clot
  104. hyperplasia
    many cells

    enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues
  105. hypertrophy
    1 large cell

    a general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in size, but not number, of cells in the tissue
  106. hypoplasia
    the incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells
  107. iatrogenic illness
    an unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment
  108. idiopathic disorder
    an illness without known cause
  109. infectious disease
    an illness caused by living patho genic organisms such as bacteria and viruses
  110. inguinal
    groin area
  111. pathology
    the study of structural and functional changes caused by disease
  112. peritoneum
    a multilayered membrane that protects and holds organs in place within the abdominal cavity
  113. peritonitis
    inflammation of the peritoneum
  114. proximal
    situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure
  115. retroperitoneal
    located behind the peritoneum
  116. stem cells
    unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division

    can be transformed into cells with special functions
  117. thoracic cavity
    • above the diaphragm
    • chest cavity
    • surrounds and protects the heart and lungs
  118. umbilicus
    the navel or belly button
  119. vector-borne transmission
    the spread of certain disease due to the bite of a vector

    (insects or animals)
  120. ventral
    the front, or belly side, of an organ or body
  121. bloodborne transmission
    the spread of disease through contact with blood or other body fluids that are contaminated by blood

    (ex. HIV, hepatitis b)
  122. functional disorder
    produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified

    (ex. panic attack)
  123. physiology
    the study of the functions of the structures of the body
  124. histology
    study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues
  125. pandemic
    an outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area, even worldwide
  126. dysplasia
    abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs
  127. geriatrician
    a dr. who treats the elderly
  128. medial
    the direction toward, or nearer, the midline
  129. mesentery
    a fused double layer of parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall
  130. adenoma
    a benign tumor that arises in, or resembles, glandular tissue
  131. midsaggital plane
    the plane that divides the body into equal right and left sides

    the midline
  132. hypogastri region
    below the stumach or umbillical
  133. caudal
    toward the lower part of the body
  134. transverse plane
    a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts
  135. pelvic cavity
    the space formed by the hip bones, containing organs of reproductive and excretory systems
  136. posterrior
    the back side of an organ or situated in the back
  137. nosocomial infection
    a disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting
  138. homeostasis
    the processes through which the body maintains a constant internal environment
  139. phenylketonuria

    a genetic disorder in which the essential enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing

  140. allogenic
    originating within another
  141. ankylosing spondylitis
    a form of rheumatoid arthritis that causes inflammation between the vertebrae
  142. arthodesis
    the surgical fusion of 2 bones to stiffen a joint
  143. arthroscopy
    the visual examination of the internal structure of a joint
  144. chondroma
    a slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells
  145. chondromalacia
    abnormal softening of cartilage
  146. compression fracture
    (vertibral crush fracture)

    when bone is pressesd together on itself
  147. craniostenosis
    a malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures
  148. crepitation
    the grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move togrther
  149. duel x-ray absorptiometry
    a low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density
  150. hallux valgus
    an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe

    (a bunion)
  151. hemarthrosis
    blood within a joint
  152. internal fixation
    a fracture treatment in which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place

    not removed
  153. juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
    an autoimmune disorder that affects children aged 16 or less

    symptoms: stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, slow growth, and fatigue
  154. laminectomy
    the surgical removal of a lamina

    (posterior portion of a vertebra)
  155. lordosis
    abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine

    (sway back)
  156. lumbago
    pain of the lumbar region of the spine
  157. malleolus
    the rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle
  158. metacarpals
    the 5 bones that form the palms of the hand
  159. metatarsals
    the part of the foot to which the toes are attached
  160. myeloma
    a type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells found in red bone marrow
  161. open fracture
    one in which the bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin.

    a compound fracture
  162. orthotic
    a mechanical appliance, such as a leg brace or splint, especially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limp function
  163. osteitis
    inflammation of bone
  164. osteoarthritis
    associated with aging

    "wear and tear"
  165. osteochondroma
    a benign bony projection covered with cartilage
  166. osteoclasis
    the surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity
  167. osteomalaycia
    abnormal softening of bones in adults

    (adult rickets)
  168. osteonecrosis
    the death of bone tissue due to lack of insufficient blood supply
  169. osteopenia
    thinner than average bone density in a young person
  170. osteoporosis
    a marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity, usually associated with aging
  171. osteoporotic hip fracture
    caused by weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis, can occur spontaneously or from a fall

    broken hip
  172. paget's disease
    a bone disease of unknown cause

    excessive breakdown of bone tissue and abnormal bone formation
  173. pathologic fracture
    a weakened bone breaks under normal strain

    (because of osteoporosis or cancer)
  174. percutaneous vertebroplasty
    • treats osteoporosis-related compression fractures
    • use of bone cement
  175. periostitis
    inflammation of the periosteum
  176. podiatrist
    foot doctor
  177. prosthesis
    a substitute for a diseased or missing body part
  178. rheumatoid arthritis
    a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some other organs are attacked
  179. rickets
    • deficiency disease in children
    • defective bone growth due to vitamin d deficiency
  180. scoliosis
    abnormal lateral curvuture of the spine
  181. spiral fracture
    when the bone has been twisted apart
  182. spondylolisthesis
    the forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebra or sacrum below it
  183. spondylosis
    a degenerative disorder that can cause a loss of normal spinal structure and function
  184. synovectomy
    the surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint
  185. vertebrae
    the bony structure units of the spinal column
  186. arthrolysis
    the surgical loosening of an anklosed joint
  187. costochondritis
    inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum
  188. autologous
    originating within an individual
  189. spina bifida
    a congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when spinal cord fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it
  190. orthopedic surgeon
    specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscules
  191. comminuted fracture
    the bone is splintered or crushed
  192. subluxation
    partial displacement of a bone from its joint
  193. fibrous displacia
    a bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue
  194. kyphosis
    adnormal icrease in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as seen from the side

  195. osteomyelitis
    an inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone
  196. osteorrhaphy
    surgical suturing, or wiring together of bones
  197. acetabulum
    the hip socket
  198. manubrium
    the bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum
  199. hemopoietic
    pertains to the formation of blood cells