Path Definitions

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Author:
emz427
ID:
63152
Filename:
Path Definitions
Updated:
2011-01-31 11:35:41
Tags:
veterinary pathology
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Exam I
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  1. Degeneration
    reversible retrogressive state in which cells/tissues adjust to sublethal conditions and demonstrate corresponding (graded) losses of function, altered metabolism, and morphological changes
  2. Acute Cellular Swelling
    abnormal accumulation of intracellular water within cells and tissues
  3. Hydropic Degeneration
    more severe morphological form of acute cellular swelling; most common in epithelium; CPE of viral infections
  4. Fatty Degeneration
    lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissue
  5. Myxomatous Degeneration
    accumulation of mucin-like material resembling/equivalent to embryonic CT (proteinic vs polysaccharide/mucus-like)
  6. Hyaline Degeneration
    pinocytosis (cellular phagocytosis) of extracellular proteins and/or denaturation of cytoplasmic proteins (coagulation of proteins)
  7. Zenker's Degeneration
    from of hyaline degeneration; coagulation of myofibrils in skeletal muscle (densely eosinophilic amorphous material in sarcoplasm)
  8. Autolysis
    spontaneous disintegration of tissues following somatic death (mediated by endogenous lytic enzymes and bacterial proteolytic processes) **postmortem
  9. Apoptosis
    programmed cell death (ordered disassembly of cell from within) that occurs in a viable host
  10. Necrosis
    abnormal (accidental) death of cells/tissues in a viable host
  11. Coagulation Necrosis
    all tissues start out as coagulation necroses and proceed from that point; some chance of replacing with normal tissue
  12. Zenker's Necrosis
    form of coagulation necrosis restricted to skeletal or cardiac muscle
  13. Gangrenous Necrosis
    form of coagulation necrosis caused by sudden-onset loss of blood vascular supply (ischemia)
  14. Caseous Necrosis
    characterized by loss of both tissue architecture and individual cellular detail; accompanied by prominent inflammatory responses and mineralization; virtually no chance of replacing with normal tissue
  15. Liquefactive Necrosis
    characterized by rapid disintigration of necrotic tissue into liquid mass
  16. Fat Necrosis
    death of focal areas of adipose tissues leading to release of constituent portions of fat
  17. Amyloidosis
    group of diseases characterized by extracellular deposition of proteinic material in tissues
  18. Mineralization
    deposition of insoluble minerals (usually calcium salts) during life
  19. Pathologic Ossification
    normal developmental or metaplastic tissue change where true bone is formed in tissue and mineralized
  20. Gout
    deposition of crystals of uric acid and urates (products of protein metabolism) in tissues
  21. Hemosiderosis
    excessive accumulation of hemosiderin-laden macrophages; tissues turn golden-brown; deposits stain positively for iron (Prussian blue)
  22. Icterus
    clinical condition results in abnormal accumulation of pigment associated with hemoglobin catabolism; bilirubin - yellow, cholebilirubin - greenish yellow
  23. Pre-hepatic Icterus
    excess hemoglobin breakdown; increased unconjugated water-insoluble hemobilirubin in serum
  24. Post-hepatic Icterus
    due to blockage of excretion of bile; increased conjugation of soluble cholebilirubin in serum
  25. Anemia
    • reduction in oxygen-carrying capacity of blood due to reduction in number of circulating erythrocytes, hemoglobin/iron, or both
    • **generalized disturbance of oxygen transport
  26. Shock
    • hypovolemia (decreased blood volume) resulting from rapid onset imbalance between blood volume (decreased cardiac output) and vascular bed volume (increased peripheral resistance)
    • **generalized disturbance of oxygen transport
  27. Dehydration
    • systemic decrease in water content
    • **disturbance of fluid balance
  28. Edema
    • accumulation of abnormal quantities of water (transudate) in interstitial tissues/body cavities
    • **disturbance of fluid balance
  29. Cerebral Edema
    intracellular water accumulation in brain
  30. Hydrocephalus
    extracellular water accumulation due to congenital or acquired obstruction of flow
  31. Hyperemia
    • excess blood volume (contained within vessels) on arterial side of capillary bed
    • **intravascular fluid imbalance
  32. Congestion
    • accumulation of excess blood on venous side of capillary bed (due to decreased outflow)
    • **intravascular fluid imbalance
  33. Hemorrhage
    • premortem escape of whole blood from any part of blood vascular system
    • **blood volume loss
  34. Thrombosis
    • inappropriate coagulation of blood constituents within the circulatory system during life; must be attached to vessel walls
    • **vascular obstruction
  35. Embolism
    • intravascular foreign (usually particulate) matter mechanically transported by the vascular system and lodges at a site distant to its point of origin
    • **vascular obstruction
  36. Infarction
    • localized area of ischemic coagulation necrosis produced by rapid mechanical blockage of arterial blood supply accomblished by obstruction within or compression without
    • **vascular obstruction
  37. Disseminated Intravascualr Coagulation (DIC)
    • rapid onset systemic condition characterized by uncontrolled activation of intrinsic coagulation systems with development of intravascular fibrin thrombi and emboli - systemic capillary thrombosis
    • **vascular obstruction

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