Examines the behavior of a person as opposed to the mental operations. Believes all behaviors are associated chains of smaller behaviors. Examines language as units of sound that forms into words which then form into sentences and so on. Believes language is a result of conditioning, and that correctly rewarded speech behaviors are rewarded and reinforced while incorrect ones become extinct.
An act or instance of transmitting or exchanging information. Langrage is the primary form of communication between humans, but not the only means so language can be distinguished from communication.
Creativity of Human Language
The ability to create and understand infinite novel sentences by operating within the rules and principals that arrange the arbitrary sounds (and gestures in sign language) into meaningful communication. The second aspect is that language allows us to communicate anything we can think about. No other animal’s system of communication allows for this to happen.
Using the received physical signal to recover the abstract object “idea” encoded by the speaker.
Language system that underlies ordinary use. It is less formal and more fluid than Prescriptive Grammar.
Translating an abstract object (idea) into a physical object (speech signal).
The set of rules that creates sentences in a language.
Written symbols linked to the language’s sound system (consonants and vowels)
Formal system for paring symbols with meanings
Acquisition of the grammar and lexicon of a language
The words used in a language
Knowledge of language in a person’s brain
Production and comprehension of sentences
Linguistic rules governing the use of the smallest unit of meaning
Receiving linguistic information
Representing words as sounds
Describe the sound patterns of the language and are used to create individual words. They are responsible for the rhythm and intonation of speech.
How language is actually used
Formalized and standardized form of grammar. In contrast, Descriptive Grammar is the language system that underlies ordinary use
Process of creating language to express ideas
A biological process and most frequent mode for transmitting linguistic information.
Syntactic (Structural) Representation
Use of lexicon and grammar to construct sentences
Linguistic rules governing the use of lexicon and grammar into sentences
Not to be confused with language which can be used to transmit thoughts or ideas.
A sentence that is poorly formed and does not adhere to either prescriptive or descriptive grammar. An example is “Me went to the movies”.
Universality of Human Language
Human language as a single entity regardless of specific differences between individual versions. All languages are similar in their organization and the abilities they confer on the people who know them. All languages have a grammar and lexicon that allow the user to convey any possible thought. This supports the theory that language is part of the human biological endowment. Communication systems of animals are species specific.
A cultural artifact used by people who already use language