Microbiology Ch 4

Card Set Information

Author:
cswett
ID:
63268
Filename:
Microbiology Ch 4
Updated:
2011-02-02 09:50:10
Tags:
Microbiology Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
Folders:

Description:
Review questions for Chapter 4 on Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user cswett on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Features of Prokaryotes
    prokaryotes = prenucleus (bacteria, archaea)

    • 1. no nucleus - single circular chromosome
    • 2. no histones - structural proteins of a chromosome
    • 3. cell wall - peptidoglycan
    • 4. reproduciton - binary fission
  2. Features of Eukaryotes
    Eukaryotes = true nucleus

    • 1. Nucleus - DNA/ histones -separted by plasma membrane
    • 2. organelles - mitochondria, ER, etc
    • 3. no cell wall - simple if present
    • 4. reproduction - mitosis/ meiosis
  3. Bacteria cell classification by shape
    bacteria cells are 1-8 micrometers (um) in length

    • 1. Cocci = balls
    • 2. Bacillus = rod
    • 3. Spirals
    • 4. Others - starts, rectangles
  4. Cocci
    Balls - attached - starts as 1 cell that divides and remains attached to one another

    • 1. diplo-cocci - two
    • 2. strepto-cocci - chain (strip)
    • 3. tetrads - groups of 4
    • 4. sarcinae - 8 in a cube
    • 5. staphylo-cocci - clusters
  5. Bacillus
    Rod

    • 1. Simple - one
    • 2. diplo-bacilli - two end to end
    • 3. strepto-bacillit - chains (end to end)
    • 4. cocco-bacilli - oval so that they look like cocci
  6. Spirals
    • 1. vibrios - curved rods
    • 2. spirilla - helical shape - inflexible
    • 3. spirochetes - helical with flexible flagella
  7. monomorphic
    pleomorphic
    monomorphic - bacteria in 1 shape

    peomorphic - bacteria in many shapes
  8. glycocalyx
    glycocalyx means sugar coat

    external to cell wall - surrounds the cell

    capsule - called a capsule if organized and firmy attached

    slime layer - called slime layer if unorganized and loosely attached
  9. Flagella
    atrichous
    peritrichous
    monotrichous
    lophotrichous
    amphitrichous
    endoflagella
    long filamentous appendages that propel bacteria

    atrichous - bacteria that lack flagella

    peritrichous - flagella distributed over the entire cell

    monotrichous - single flagella at one pole

    lophotrichous - tuft of flagella at one pole

    amphitrichous - flgella at both poles

    endoflagella - axial filaments - structure is within the cell - enclosed by outer sheath - rotates to make entire cell move like a corkscrew(ONLY on SPRIOCHETES)
  10. 3 parts of the flagella
    • 1. filament - flagellin = protein helix
    • 2. hook - another protein
    • 3. basal body - anchor = rotates like rotary motor - can go in reverse
  11. types of motility
    motility = movement

    1. chemotaxis - move toward or away from chemical (glucose, oxygen)

    2. phototaxis - move toward or away from light
  12. fimbriae
    pili
    fimbriae = fingers that allow attachement

    pili - tube - used to transfer DNA from one cell to another during conjugation (sex pili)

    both found on gram (-) bacteria more commonly
  13. prokaryotic Cell Wall
    functions
    composition
    • the prokaryotic cell wall is rigid
    • protective, gives the cell shape, prevents rupture anchors falgella, surrounds the plasma membrane

    • made primarily of peptidoglycan =
    • disaccharide (NAG/NAM) + protein (tetrapeptide)

    • gram (+) many layers of peptidoglycan
    • teichoic acids (negatively charged) ion channels that regulate movement of cations in and out of cell
    • has peptide crossbridges - penicillin breaks these and causes cell lysis
    • cell wall has negative charge
    • gram (-) - 1 layer of peptidoglycan with outer layer of phospholipids - weaker
    • cell wall had negative charge
  14. Gram stain
    the purpose of gram stain is to identify different types of bacteria and know how to treat them from medical purposes

    • Gram stain procedure
    • 1. crystal violet
    • 2. iodine (mordant)
    • 3. alcohol wash (makes gram (-) colorless
    • 4. safranin

    • gram (+) = purple
    • gram (-) = pink
  15. damage to cell walls
    causes osmotic lysis - too much water enters cell and cell bursts - can not happen with intact cell wall but if cell wall is damaged -ie penicillin attacks protein crossbridges and allow osmotic lysis
  16. prokaryotic plasma membrane
    structure
    function
    • 1. phopsholipids (bilayer)
    • 2. proteins
    • -peripheral proteins - can be removed w/o damage to membrane
    • -integral proteins - can not be removed w/o damage to membrane - most are transmembrane
    • -transmembrane proteins - penetrates membrane completely - pores & channels

    primary function is selective permeability - certain molecule and ions can pass through but others are prevented from passing through

    #2 function - enzymatic - ATP formation & catalyze decompression

    note: no carbohydrates or steroids (cholesterol) in prokaryotic plasma membrane
  17. Are there organelles in a prokaryotic cell?
    • NO
    • ATP is made on the plasma membrane (enzymes)

    Photosynthesis takes place in folds called thylakoids or chromatophores

    note - prokaryotic cells have ribosomes for protein synthesis
  18. Passive Transport
    Active Transport
    • Passive transport - no ATP used - materials move down the concentration gradient
    • 1. simple diffusion
    • 2. facilitated diffusion -via membrane protein - down the concentration gradient
    • 3. Osmosis - movement of water across selectively permeable membrane

    • Active transport- requires ATP - movement against the concentration gradient
    • 1. uses transport proteins
    • 2. group translocation - ONLY IN BACTERIA - substance changed as it is transported so that it cannot leak back out of the membrane
  19. endocytosis
    phagocytosis
    pinocytosis
    exocytosis
    ONLY IN EUKARYOTIC CELLS

    • endocytosis - taking nutrients in
    • phagocytosis - eating
    • pinocytosis - drinking
    • exocytosis - moving waste out
  20. isotonic
    hypotonic
    hypertonic
    describe the concentration of solution outside the cell relative to the concentration inside the cell

    • isotonic - equilibrium
    • hypotonic - solution outside has less solute (more inside) so water moves in and blows cell up

    hypertonic - solution outside has more solute so water moves out of cell (plasmolyzed cell)
  21. prokaryotic cells parts:
    cytoplasm
    nuclear area
    nucleoid
    ribosomes
    plasmid
    • cytoplasm - gel inside cell - mostly water (80%)
    • contains: nuclear area, ribosomes, and inclusions

    • nuclear area:
    • 1. nucleoid - one single chromosome of circular DNA (NO HISTONES)
    • 2. plasmids - small circles of genes (5-100) that are not essential for everyday life

    • ribosomes - site of protein synthesis
    • protein + rRNA
    • 30S + 50S = 70S
  22. inclusion bodies:
    metachromatic granules
    polysaccharide granules
    lipid granules
    sulfur granules
    carboxysomes
    gas vacuoles
    magnetosomes
    • metachromatic granules - phosphate reserves for ATP
    • polysaccharide granules - energy reserves
    • lipid granules - energy reserves
    • sulfur granules - energy reserves
    • carboxysomes - enzymes for CO2 fixation
    • gas vacuoles - buoyancy
    • magnetosomes - iron oxide - for attachement
  23. Endospore
    sporulation
    germination
    • Endospore - resting or dormant state that is formed when nutrients are depleted in the environment
    • only in bacteria - mostly gram (+)
    • dehydrated
    • durable - survives extreme heat, no water, toxins, time

    Sporulation (sporogenesis) formation of the endospore

    germination - sport returns to normal state
  24. Eukaryotic flagella
    how does it differ from prokaryotic flagella?
    • made of tubulin (a microtubule)
    • contain cytoplasm
    • covered by plasma membrane
    • whip motion - don't rotate
  25. celia
    numerous short projections for cellular locomotion
  26. microtubules
    long, hollow tubes made of a protein called tubulin (make up eukaryotic flagella)
  27. Prokaryotic plasma membrane
    • 1. phospholipids
    • 2. proteins (peripheral & integral)
    • 3. glycoproteins & glycolipids
    • 5. carbohydrates - cell recognition
    • 6. steroids (cholesterol) - suport - prevents osmotic lysis
  28. Eukaryotic organells:
    1. cytoskeleton
    2. nucleus/ nucleolus
    3. golgi complex
    4. ER - smooth/ rough
    5. lysosomes
    6. vacuoles
    7. mitochondria
    8. chloroplasts
    9. peroxisome
    10. centrosome
    11. ribosome
    • 1. cytoskeleton - for shape, to move cell, to move substances within the cell
    • a. microfilaments - rods
    • b. microtubuels - tubes

    • 2. nucleus/ nucleolus - contains DNA (w/histones) - cromatin (loose) or chromosome (helix during mitosis)
    • has nuclear envelope
    • nucleolus - makes rRNA

    • 3. golgi complex - protein processing plant
    • stacked cisterns (pita bread)
    • transport vessicle from ER to GC:
    • a. secretory vessicle - to outside cell
    • b. transfer vessicle - to another cystern
    • c. storage vessicles - for lysosome

    • 4. ER - endoplasmic reticulum
    • 1. Smooth ER - contains enzymes to synthesize lipids & steroids -
    • -detox drugs
    • -breakdown glycogen into glucose
    • 2. Rough ER - covered with ribosomes - makes proteins - connected to nuclear envelope

    5. lysosomes - digestive enzymes

    6. vacuoles - in plants (for storage)

    • 7. mitochondria - ATP synthesis
    • -double membrane - inner cristae
    • -matrix= fluid inside
    • - contains ribosomes & DNA - can replicate

    8. chloroplast - in algea & green plants - photosynthesis - chlorophyll contains in thylakoids

    9. Peroxisome - makes & degrades peroxide

    10. centrosome - organizes microtubules for mitosis

    11. ribosome - protein synthesis
  29. Replication
    Transcription
    Translation
    • Replication = DNA → DNA
    • Transcription = DNA → mRNA
    • Translation = mRNA → protein

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview