Supreme Court Decisions

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Supreme Court Decisions
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2011-01-31 19:09:10
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  1. Led to the enactment of the 11th Amendment(1798), which established that federal courts have no authority in suits by citizens against a state, thus preventing a citizen of another state from suing a state
    Chisholm v. Georgia(1793)
  2. Declared the Judiciary Ant of 1789 unconstituitional and void. The principle of "judicial review" was first asserted and established with this decision, althouh the Court first exercised the power of judicial review in Hylton v. United States in 1796 when it upheld the constitutionality of a Congressional tax
    Marbury v. Madison(1803)
  3. First found a state law to be unconstitutional
    Fletcher v. Peck(1810)
  4. Established the Court's appellate power when "federal questions" are involved (see Cohens v. Virginia)
    Martin v. Hunter's Lessee(1816)
  5. Upheld the doctrine of implied powers of the Constitution and allowed for a liberal interpretation by Congress
    McCulloch v. Maryland(1819)
  6. Ruled that a charter is a contract, which the Constitution protects against state legislative interference
    Dartmouth College v. Woodward(1819)
  7. Along with Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, established that a uniform interpretation aplloied for "federal questions" and that the court's scope of jurisdiction was founded on the doctrine of national supremacy
    Cohens v. Virginia(1821)
  8. Estalished the basis for federal regulatory powers in the area of interstate commerce-it also established the precedent that Congress can invalidate contradictory laws of the states especially concering the granting of monopoly privileges
    Gibbons v. Ogden(1824)
  9. Established the "original package" docctrine of goods if the "original package" were imports and subject to congressional and not state regulation
    Brown v. Maryland(1827)
  10. Ruled that it had no jurisdiction since the Cherokee Nation was a "domestic dependent nation" with no standing in court either as citizens or as a foreign nation, thus upholding Georgia's laws over the territory it claimed as its own
    Cherokee Nation v. Georgia(1831)
  11. Declared a Georgia law to be unconstitutional by ruling that Georgia laws were not applicable withing the territorial boundaries fo the Cherokee nation and that Federal Jurisdiction over the Cherokee was exclusive
    Worcester v. Georgia(1832)
  12. Declared a Congressional Act to be unconstitutional, stating that Congress could not pass a law depriving citizens of their property without due process of law
    Dred Scott v. Sanford(1857)
  13. Declared that neither Congress nor the President could institute military tribunals to try civilians, even during wartime, in areas where civil courts were available as the Consitution "is a law for rules and people equally in war and in peace"
    Ex Parte Milligan(1866)
  14. 5 cases in which the court restricted the scope of federal authority by holding that the 14th Amendment did not protect the invasion of civil rights by individuals in effect the Court allowed racial discrimination against blacks by private persons
    Civil Rights Cases(1883)
  15. Established a constitutional foundation for the "separate-but-equal" doctrine in upholding a Louisiana law requiring segregated railroad facilities since the separated black facilities were equal to the efacilities for others
    Plessy v. Ferguson(1896)
  16. Ruled that a 10-hour-day law for bakers was unconstitutional because it violated "freedom of contract" between employer and employee (reversed in 1937)
    Lochner v. New York(1905)
  17. Upheld the dissolution of the mighty company as it applied the "rule of reason" to the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890
    Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey et al. v. United States(1911)
  18. Ordered the reorganization rather that the dissolution of the company based on the "rule of reason"
    U.S. v. American Tobacco Co...(1911)
  19. Ruled that the government cannot restricct freedom of speech unless the speech creates a "clear and present danger" leading to evils that Congress is empowered to protect against
    Schenck v. United States(1919)
  20. Along with other cases from 1925 to 1932, established that most of the guarantees in the Bill of Rights of the Constitution were applicable to the states
    Gitlow v. New York(1925)
  21. "Sick Chicken Case" unanimously invalidating the National Industrial Recovery Act by ruling that Congress could not "delefate legislative" powers to the executive and could not regulate wholly intrastate business
    Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States(1935)
  22. Decided that the federal government is empowered to regulate local labor union activities, upholding the Wayne Act
    National LAbor Relations Board v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation(1937)
  23. Ruled that President Truman's seizure of the nation's steel mills to prevent strike was unconstitutional- this was the first time a presidential action was ruled unconstitutional
    Yougstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer(1952)
  24. reversed the Plessy v. Ferfuson decision that established the "separate but equal" doctrin and thus declaed for the first time that sgregation was unconstitutional
    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka(1952)
  25. Defined obscentiy and ruled that the 1st Amendment
  26. the Constitution does not protect the publication of obscene material
    Roth v. United States(1957)
  27. Eliminated the use of evidence obtained by illegal means from criminal trials
    Mapp v. Ohio(1961)
  28. Allowed courts to listen to citizens' complains about unequal election districts, ended reapportionment of political districts in favor of rural areas, and led to reappotionment decisions based on a "one man, one vote" basis
    Baker v. Carr(1962)
  29. Ruled a non-denominational prayer by the New York Board of Reents to be unconstitutional
    Engel v. Vitale(1962)
  30. Struck down the state law requiring the reading of the Bible and the recitation of the Lord's Prayer
    School District of Abington Township v. Schempp(1963)
  31. held that public officials acting in an official capacity could not sue for libel unless they proved actual malice
    New York Times v. Sullivan(1964)
  32. Exended coverage of the 14th Amendmen to indigent defendants for courtappointed counsel
    Gideon v. Wainright(1964)
  33. Declared that all state legislators must be elected by the rule of "one person. on vote" meaning that election districts must be roughly equal in population
    Reynolds v. Sims(1964)
  34. Prohibited a confession from being used as evidence if the accused person has been denied permission to see a lawyer
    Escobedo v. Illinois(1964)
  35. Established the Miranda Rule that suspects must be informed of their rights
    Miranda v. Arizona(1966)
  36. "Pentagon Papers Case" Holding that prior censorship by the government was unconstitutional and any attempt to block publication would violate the 1st Amendment
    New York Times Company v. United States(1971)
  37. Ruled that the death penalty impsed by state sourts was unconstitutional under the 8th and 14th Amendments
    Furman v. Georgia(1972)
  38. Held that reporters were not constitutionally privileged under the 1st Amendment to refuse to reveal their sources to a valid grand Jury during an investiation or criminal trial
    Branzburg v. Hayes(1872)
  39. Struck down two states laws banning abortion during the first six months of pregnancy as a vilation of privacy based on the 14th Amendment, and, by implication, overturned restrictive abortion laws in 44 other states
    Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton(1973)
  40. Established a detailed set of standards for evaluationg obscenity and thus gave more power to states and local governments to determine what material is obscene
    Miller v. California(1973)
  41. Held that the Supreme Court and not the President is the final judge of the Constitution
    United States v. Richard Nixon(1974)
  42. Prohibited specific quotas from being used by university and college admission programs to achieve racial balance
    Regents of the University of California v. Allan Bakke(1978)
  43. Upheld patent of creating new lifeforms from manmade microorganisms
    Diamond v. Chakrabarty(1980)
  44. Refused to extend any constitutional right of privacy to homosexual activity
    Bowers v. Hardwick(1986)
  45. Ruled that sexual harassment is a form of discrimination prohibited under the Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson(1986)
  46. Ruled that states cannot limit the number of terms their senators and representatives may serve in Congress
    U.S. Term Limits v. Thornton(1995)
  47. Struck down a Colorado constitutional provision that barred legislation protecting homosexuals from discrimination
    Romer v. Evans(1996)
  48. Declared that a sitting President does not have temporary immunity from a lawsuit for actions outside the realm of official duties
    Clinton v. Jones(1997)
  49. Ruled that manual recouns of presidential ballots in the 2000 election could not continue because the inconsistent evaluation standards in different Florida counties violated the equal protection clause, a ruling that, in effect, handed the election to Bush
    Bush v. Gore(2000)
  50. University of Michigan case ruling that colleges and universities cannot use point systems blindly in favoring minority applicants
    Gratz v. Bollinger(2003)
  51. Michigan Law School case ruling that colleges and universities may favor minority students as long as each applicant's background is fully assessed
    Gruttner v. Bollinger(2003)
  52. Ruled that homosexuals are entitles to the right of privacy and that private sexual conduct is not a crime
    Lawrence et al. v. Texas(2003)

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