Card Set Information
Vet Tech Pharmacology notecards
any substance that can modify a biological activity, used to diagnose, prevent or treat disease
FDA (Food and Drug Administration)
Regulates the development and approval of animal drugs and feed additives (except for biologics such as vaccines) through its center for vet medicine division.
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture)
Regulates the development and approval of biologics such as vaccines
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
Regulates the development and approval of animal topical pesticides
DEA (Drug enforcement administration)
Regulates the laws and rules regarding the purchase, storage and use of controlled substances.
regulated by the FDA. Vet/client/patient relationship must exist before dispensing drugs.
Vet has assumed responsibility of animal.
Vet has sufficient knowledge of animal to issue a diagnosis.
Vet is available for a follow-up exam.
Dangerous drugs because of their potential for abuse. Regulated by the DEA
Reasons for using drugs.
3 methods of choosing drugs
diagnostic- assesment or exam test
empirical- practical experience, common sense
symptomatic- treat clinical signs
what happens to drugs once they enter the body
body chemically changes the drug, occurs in liver
drug elimination from the body, usually by the kidneys
drugs remaining in the animals body
time it takes for a drug to be eliminated from an animal after administration has stopped
how drugs exert their effect. attachment or combination to receptors is similar to lock and key
ability or tendency to attach to receptor
the degree to which drug produces desired respose to the patient
drug with affinity and efficacy, causes a specific action
drug that blocks another drug from combining with a receptor
official identifying name of the drug, lower case
trade or proprietary name
name chosen by manufacturer that is registered by the us patent office and approved by FDA
refers to the force of the contraction of the heart
refers to the rate of contraction of the heart
amount of blood being ejected from L ventricle with each heartbeat. Preload, afterload and contractility
volume of blood entering the right side of the heart
force needed to push blood out of the ventricles
force of ventricular contraction
volume of blood expelled from the heart in one minute. stroke volume x heart rate
acts to slow the heart rate by inhibiting impulse formation at the SA node, triggered by the parasympathetic nervous system. Blocked by anticholinergics
receptors of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Epinepherene and Norepinephrine
acts to speed the heart rate by promoting impulse formation at the SA node, released when sympathetic nervous system is triggered
receptors of the sympathetic nervous system that are classified based on their effects when stimulated.
found in smooth muscle surrounding peripheral blood vessels. Vasoconstriction
found in the synaptic space. reduction of blood pressure.
increased heart rate and increased force of contractions
found in smooth muscle surrounding blood vessels of the heart. vasodilation
reoccuring heart contractions
normal heath rhythm, called this because it originates in the SA node.
abnormal heart rate, SA node not functioning properly
positive inotropic drugs
used to increase force of heart contractions, cardiac glycosides and catecholamines.
cardiac glycosides, digitalis
....heart pumps harder and heart rate slows, therapeutic dose is very close to toxic dose.
used to treat abnormal heart rhythm or an abnormal electrical pattern
used to dilate arteries and or veins which improves cardiac output
enzyme that activates angiotensin, vasoconstriction substance in blood
active form of angiotensin that causes further vasoconstriction, converted by ACE
ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme
converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II and releases aldosterone
enalapril, Enacard, Vetmedin
used to promote the clotting of blood, stop clotting, bleeding or enhance drugs
used to decrease blood pressure to help with renal dysfunction, BLOOD PRESSURE LOWERING DRUGS
increased resistance to blood flow that results from narrowed peripheral blood vessels.
act by promoting sodium and water loss to cause a decrease in fluid volume and blood pressure
ACE inhibitors, ANTIHYPERTENSIVE
act by blocking ACE
calcium-channel blockers, ANTIHYPERTENSIVE
act by blocking influx of calcium ions into heart muscle cells, inhibits cardiac muscle contraction which decreases resistance to blood flow
relax smooth muscle of blood vessels
beta blockers, ANTIHYPERTENSIVE
act of heart receptors to slow heart rate
increase volume of urine excreted by kidneys, reduce blood pressure and lowers extracellular fluid volume in tissues
most commonly used. inhibits Na reabsorption and exchanges it for K excretion in the loop of henle.
site of action is at the DCT, more K excreted while Na remains the same. can result in hypokalemia.
works by actually causing Na excretion and potassium conservation, takes place in DCT
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
block the action of enzymes carbonic anhydrase. causes increased Na, K and bicarbonate excretion
increase the osmolality (concentration) of the filtrate in the renal tubules. excretes Na, K, Cl and H
uroliths (urinary calculi)
abnormal mineral accumulations in the urinary system
act to produce acidic urine, disolves struvite uroliths. Less than 7pH
act to produce akaline urine, pH greater than 7
xanthine oxidase inhibitors
act to decrease production of uric acid
loss of voluntary control of micturition, neurological or nonneurological
used to treat animals with damage to the nerves that control the bladder
act to promote urine retention in the bladder
alpha adrenergic antagonists
treats decreased urinary tone of the urethral sphincters
used to treat incontinence due to lack of muscle tone in spayed and neutered animals.
alpha and beta-adrenergic agonist
act to increase urethral tone
skeletal muscle relaxants
act to limit spasms of external urethral sphincter
adult and neonate water weight
intracellular fluid ICF
fluid within the cells. 2/3 body water weight
extracellular fluid ECF
fluid intravascular and interstitial...1/3 total body water. 75% is interstitial and 25% is intravascular.
substances that split ions when placed in water. Create electrical conductivity in the body.
positivly charged electroytes
negatively charged electrolytes
force or pressure that developes when 2 solutions of different concentrations are separated by a membrane
Na-based electrolyte solution and non-electrolyte solutions that can pass through cell membranes.
higher Na concentration than extracellular fluid that cause water to move out of cells and into extracellular space.
same Na concentration as extracellular fluid.
lower Na concentration causes water to move into intracellular space
substances that do not cross cell membranes, enhance oncotic force of blood, used for vascular expansion
whole blood, plasma
daily fluid maintenance
restore fluid loss
% dehydration x body weight(kg) x 1000ml/kg
adult fluid sets
pediatric fluid sets