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How does blood contribute to homeostasis?
by transporting oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and hormones to and from the body's cells. It also helps regulate body pH and temp, and provides protection against disease thru phagocytosis and the production of antibodies.
Define cardiovascular system
it consists of 3 interrelated components: blood, the heart, and blood vessels.
What is the branch of science concerned with the study of blood, blood forming tissues, and the disorders associated with them?
What are the 2 fluids that move around to obtain oxygen and nutrients or eliminate carbon dioxide and other wastes for the cells of a multicellular organism?
blood and interstitial fluid
a connective tissue composed of a liquid extracellular matrix called blood plasma that dissolves and suspends various cells and cell fragments
define interstitial fluid
the fluid that bathes body cells and is constantly renewed by the blood
What does blood transport and where?
Blood transports oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the GI tract, whcih diffuse from the blood into the interstitial fluid and then into body cells.
How is Carbon dioxide and other wastes transported...what is the route?
From body cells to interstitial fluid to blood. Blood then transports the wastes to various organs for elimination from the body
What are the organs used to transport wastes for elimination from the body?
the lungs, kidney, and skin
What are the 3 general functions of blood?
How does blood function as transportation?
Blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body and carbon dioxide from the body cells to the lungs for exhalation. It carries nutrients from the GI tract to body cells and hormones from endocrine glands to other body cells. Blood also transports heat and waste products to various organs for elimination from the body.
How is blood function as a regulator?
Circulating blood helps maintain homeostasis of all body fluids. Blood helps regulate pH thru the use of buffers. It also helps adjust body temp thru the heat absorbing and coolant properties of the water in blood plasma and its variable rate of flow thru the skin where excess heat can be lost from the blood to the environment. In addition, blood osmotic pressure influences the water content of cells, mainly thru interactions of dissolved ions and proteins.
How does blood function as protection?
Blood can clot, which protects against its excessive loss from the cardiovascular system after an injury. In addition, its white blood cells protect against disease by carrying on phagocytosis. Several types of blood proteins, including antibodies, interferons, and complement, help protect against diesease in a variety of ways.
Blood is ___ and more ___ than water and feels slightly ____.
What is the temp of blood?
38C (100.4F), about 1C higher than oral or rectal body temp
what is the pH of blood?
slightly alkaline ranging from 7.35-7.45
What does the color of the blood depend on?
its oxygen content
If the oxygen content is high, it is bright red
If the oxygen content is low, it is dark red
What % of blood constitutes extracellular fluid?
20%, amounting to 8% of the total body mass
What is the blood volume for men and for women?
5-6 liters in man
4-5 in women
Why is there a difference in blood volume between men and women?
Because of body size and women's menstrual cycle
What ensures that blood volume and osmotic pressure remain relatively constant?
name the hormones that regulate the blood bolume and osmotic pressure
aldosterone, ADH, and atrial natriuretic peptide
What do the hormones aldosterone, ADH, and atrial natriuretic peptide do?
regulate how much water is excreted in the urine...therefore ensure that blood volume and osmotic pressure remain relatively constant
What are the ways blood samples can be taken?
finger or hell stick
What is a venipuncture?
withdrawal of blood from a vein using a needle and collecting tube, which contains various additives.
What is a common site for a venipuncture?
the median cubital vein anterior to the elbow.
What is an arterial stick?
Blood is withdrawn from an artery; this test is used to determine the level of oxygen in oxygenated blood
Blood has 2 components..they are:
What is blood plasma?
a watery liquid extracellular matrix that contains dissolved substances
What are formed elements?
cells and cell fragments
If a sample of blood is centrifuged in a small glass tube, what go to the bottom and what stay at the top?
the cells sink to the bottom of the tube while the lighter weight plasma forms a layer on top
How much of blood is formed elements and how much is plasma?
45% formed elements and 55% plasma
what constitute more than 99% of the formed elements?
what constitute less than 1% of the formed elements of blood?
WBCs and platelets
What constitutes the buffy coat layer, and why?
the WBCs and platelets of the formed elements because they are less dense than RBCs but more dense than blood plasma
What color is blood plasma?
What constitutes blood plasma?
91.5% water and 8.5% solutes, most of which are proteins
Some of the proteins in blood plasma are also found elsewhere in the body, but those confined to blood are called ___ ___.
among their other functions, what play a role in maintainging proper blood osmotic pressure?
What is blood osmotic pressure?
an important factor in the exchange of fluids across capillary walls
What synthesize most of the plasma proteins?
hepatocytes (liver cells)
What make up plasma proteins?
albumins (54%), globulins (38%) and fibrinogen (7%)
Certain blood cells develop into cells that produce ___ ___, an important type of globulin.
what are the plasma proteins called that are produced during certain immune responses?
antibodies or immunoglobulins
What stimulate production of millions of different antibodies?
foreign substances (antigens) such as bacteria and viruses
what are antigens?
bacteria and viruses
How do antibodies and antigens work together?
an antibody binds specifically to the antigen that stimulated its production and thus disables the invading antigen
What are the substances in blood plasma?
- plasma proteins
- Other solutes
- regulatory substances
- waste products
In respect to blood plasma, what is the description of water?
Liquid portion of blood. Acts as solvent and suspending medium for components of blood; absorbs, transports, and releases heat
In respect to blood plasma, what is the description of plasma proteins?
Exert colloid osmotic pressure, which helps maintain water balance between blood and tissues and regulates blood volume
In respect to blood plasma, what is the description of albumins?
Smallest and most numerous blood plasma proteins; produced by liver. Function as transport proteins for several steroid hormones and for fatty acids
Plasma protein; Produced by liver and by plasma cells, which develop from B lymphocytes. Antibodies (immunoglobulins) help attack viruses and bacteria. Alpha and beta globulins transport iron, lipids, and fat soluble vitamins
Plasma protein; produced by liver; plays essential role in blood clotting
Inorganic salts. Positively charged ions (cations) include Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+; negatively charged ions (anions) include Cl-, HPO42-, SO42-, and HCO3-. Help maintain osmotic pressure and play essential roles in the function of cells.
Products of digestion pass into blood for distribution to all body cells. Include amino acids (from proteins), glucose (from carbohydrates), fatty acids and glycerol (from triglycerides), vitamins, and minerals.
Describe gases in regards to blood plasma
Oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2). More O2 is associated with hemoglobin inside red blood cells; more CO2 is dissolved in plasma. N2 is present but has no known function in the body
Describe regulatory substance in blood plasma
Enzymes, produced by body cells, catalyze chemical reactions. Hormones, produced by endocrine glands, regulate metabolism, growth, and development. Vitamins are cofactors for enzymatic reactions
Describe waste products in blood plasma
Most are breakdown products of protein metabolism and are carried by blood to organs of excretion. Include urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine, bilirubin, and ammonia.
The formed elements of the blood include 3 principal components:
RBCs, WBCs and platelets
What are platelets made from?
What are several distinct types of WBCs?
neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils
there are 2 classifications of WBC:
What are the granular leukocytes?
What are the agranular leukocytes?
T & B lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells
Where did granular & agranular leukocytes get their name?
Granular leukocytes contain conspicuius ganules that are visible under a light microscope after staining
agranular leukocytes do not contain granules visible under a light microscope after staining
What is the percentage of total volume occupied by RBCs called?
If you had a hematocrit of 40 what does that indicate?
that 40% of the volume of blood is composed of RBCs
what is the normal range of hematocrit for adult females and males?
38-46% for females
40-54% for males
Why would a male show higher hematocrits?
Because testosterone stimulates synthesis of erythropoietin (EPO), the hormone that in turn stimulates production of RBCs, hence testosterone contributes to higher hematocrits in males
Why are hematocrits lower in females?
Because of the blood lost during their menstrual cycle
What does a significant drop in hematocrit indicate?
What is anemia?
A lower than normal number of RBCs
What is polycythemia?
the percentage of RBCs is abnormally high, and the hematocrit may be 65% or higher
Why is polycythemia bad?
This raises the viscosity of blood, which increases the resistance to flow and makes the blood more difficult for the heart to pump. Increased viscosity also contributes to high blood pressure and increased risk of stroke.
What causes polycythemia?
abnormal increases in RBC production, tissue hypoxia, dehydration, and blood doping or the use of EPO by athletes.
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