Earth Science.txt

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Anonymous
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63305
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Earth Science.txt
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2011-01-31 20:49:27
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science
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Midterm Review
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  1. The height of the wave is affected by three things
    wind speed, wind duration, fetch
  2. Waves are caused by
    Wind
  3. As the wavelength decreases the _______ increases as a waves moves closer to shore
    wave height
  4. what is a wave with decreasing wave length and increasing wave height called
    breakers
  5. What causes breakers to happen
    friction between water and ocean bottom
  6. how often to most places on eath have a high and low tide?
    twice a day
  7. What is a tidal range
    The difference between the levels of the high tides and the low tides
  8. __________ is the bringing of cold water and nutrients to the surface.
    upwelling
  9. what is associated with upwelling
    schools of fish
  10. What causes El nino
    Density- warm water blown away from shore
  11. What are the tow most abundant salts in the ocean
    Chlorine and Sodium
  12. A Measure of salts in the water is
    Salinity
  13. What happens to the salinity of water when the density decreases
    Salinity Increases
  14. The chesapeake Bay is an example of an esturary which is
  15. where fresh water and ocean water mix
  16. ________ are large streams of moving water which flow through the ocean.
    Currents
  17. What is the major current that flows from the equator past the east coast of the united states?
    Gulf Stream
  18. What causes a current to be warm or cold
    where they originate
  19. What causes currents to curve?
    Coriolis Effect
  20. What direction do currents move in the northern and southern hemispheres
    • Northern hemisphere - clockwise
    • Southern Hemisphere - counter clockwise
  21. What technology do scientist use to map the ocean floor
    SONAR
  22. Define Atmosphere
    The atmosphere layer of hases and tiny particles that surrounds the earth
  23. The two major gases in the atmosphere and their percentages
    Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21%
  24. The gas that varies the most from place to place and time to time is
    water vapor
  25. Name the different instruments used by meteorologists
    Themometer, Barometer, Anemeter, Wind Vane, Celiometer
  26. How does heat travel thought the atmosphere and in what form can this be found
    Electromagnetic waves, radiation
  27. Wind always blows from _______ pressure to _________ low pressure
  28. High | Low
  29. What force makes winds curve
    Coriolis Effect
  30. How do winds move in a low pressure system
    Moves towards the center and counter clockwise, in the northern hemisphere
  31. How do winds move in a high pressure system
    Wind moves out and away from the center clock wise in the northern hemisphere
  32. What is a high pressure system associated with
    Sunny
  33. What is a low pressure system associated with
    Stormy, and cloudy
  34. How do clouds form
    Warm air rises, cools, water vapor condenses at the lifted condensation level on condensation nuclei
  35. Define lifted condensation level
    base of clouds
  36. What is a water cycle
    Movement of water between air and ground
  37. What are the major air masses of the United States
    Maritime polar, Maritime Tropical, Continental Polar, Continental Tropical, Arctic
  38. Maritime polar
    Wet and cold, northern pacific and atlantic north west and north east
  39. Maritime Tropical
    Wet and hot, southern pacific, atlantic
  40. Continental Polar
    Dry and cold, canada
  41. Continental Tropical
    Dry and hot, mexico
  42. Arctic
    Dry and cold, the north pole
  43. A funnel shaped cloud that touched earth's surface is called a
    Tornado
  44. Where do tornados form in the U.s. and when?
    Tornado alley, in the spring
  45. the calmest part of a hurricane is
    the eye
  46. what are isopleths
    lines that connect equal value
  47. what are the two different types of isopleths
    isobars and isotherms
  48. what type of lines does an isobar connect
    air pressure
  49. what type of lines do isotherms connect
    air temperature
  50. what are the units for isobars
    mb
  51. what are the units for isotherm
    degrees F
  52. What is the difference between weather and climate
    weather is daily and climate is an average intake of 30 years of weather
  53. What is El Nino
    Weather Pattern
  54. Where does El Nino form
    Pacific ocean off east coast of australia
  55. How often does El Nino occure
    3-7 years
  56. What is the difference in climate on the leeward and windward sides of a mountain
    Leeward is desert and windward is wet
  57. What would cause clouds to form at a mountain
    Orographic Lifting
  58. What is global warming`
    rise in global temperatures due to increase in Co2
  59. What is the difference between rotate and revolve
    the earth rotates on its axis and it revolves around the earth
  60. How long does is take the earth to rotate and revolve
    24 hours to rotate and 365.25 days to revolve
  61. what causes seasons
    the earths tilt on its axis and revolution around the earth
  62. What marks the begining of each season
    Vernal equinox, summer solstice, autumnal equinox and winter solstice
  63. When are the equinox's and solstice's start?
    Summer solstice (june 21) winter solstice (dec.21) Vernal Equinox (March 21) Autumnal (Sept.22)
  64. How much daylight and night time occur on each date
    Equinox - 12 day light 12 night
  65. What is the difference between a lunar and solar eclipse
    • Lunar - earth blocks light from sun to moon
    • Solar - moon blocks light from sun to earth
  66. Durring which moon phases do lunar and solar eclipse form
    Lunar eclipse form during a full moon and solar eclipse form during a new moon
  67. Define umbra and penumbra
    • umbra - toatl eclipse- no light
    • Penumbra - partial eclipse - some light
  68. What causes the phases of the moon
    Revolution of the moon around the earth
  69. what are the closest and furthest points on the moon's orbit around earth called
    Perigee - closest | Furthest is Apogee
  70. What are the features found on the moon and how did each form
    highland - mountains, maria- flat lava, impact craters, objects hit moon from spave rays made from objects hitting moon, rilles valley structures
  71. how are the moon and earth similar
    both have a core mantle, crust, made of silica, mountains, valleys, plains
  72. how are the earth and moon different
    earth is still techtonicall active, earth has less impact craters
  73. What are the tree theories for the formation of the moon
    capture, simultaneaus formation,impact theory
  74. which is the most accepted theory for moon formation
    the impact therory
  75. what was the name of the first satellite launched into space and from what country did it come
    sputnik, russia
  76. What are the four space programs the United states
    Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Space Shuttle
  77. Who was the first american to orbit the earth, in which space program did this occur
    John Glenn in mercury
  78. WHich space program landed on the moon
    apollo
  79. Who were the first astronauts to walk on the moon
    neil armstrong and Buzz Aldrin
  80. What is the differnces between heliocentric and geocentirc solar systems
    • Heliocentric is sun centered
    • Geocentric is earth centered
  81. Who is credited for the dicovery of the heliocentric and geocentric solar systems
    • Heliocentric - copernicus
    • Geocentric -Ptolemy
  82. What is the difference between terrestrial and gas giants
    • Terrestrial- 1st 4 planets - small and rocky
    • Gass giants -large and gasous
  83. what are the terrestrial and gasgiant planets
    • Terrestrial - mercury, venus, earth, mars
    • Gass giants - Jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune
  84. how are the inner planets alike
    small and rocky
  85. how are the inner planets different
    few moons or no moons
  86. how are the outer planets alike?
    large and made up of gas, has many moons
  87. How are the outer planets different
    rings or no rings
  88. What is found between the orbits of mars and jupiter
    astroid belt
  89. what are the layers of the sun
    Core, photosphere, chromosphere, corona
  90. Where does nuclear fusion take place
    core
  91. What are the three storms on the sun adn what do they look like
    sun spots(black dots), prominence(u shaped thing), solar flares (long stringy things)
  92. How old is the sun
    5 billion years old
  93. What type of star is the sun
    main sequence
  94. What color star is the sun
    yellow
  95. What does the life cycle of the sun look like
    protostar to main sequence to giant to white dwarf to black dwarf
  96. define meteoroid
    meterial that falls to earth and enters the atmosphere
  97. Define meteorite
    lands on earth
  98. Define meteor
    streak of light produced when burning up in the atmosphere
  99. Define parallax
    shift in position caused by movement of observer
  100. what is a comet
    small icy bodies -made of ice and rock
  101. what is the shape of a comets orbit
    highly eccentric
  102. what is the big band theory
    theory for formation of universe
  103. what are two types of telescopes that use lenses and mirrors
    refracting telescopes use lenses, reflecting telescopes use mirrors
  104. Define light year
    distance light travels in one year
  105. how are stars classified
    temperature, brightness, composition
  106. What is the name of the chart used to classify stars
    h-r diagrams
  107. What are the variables on the H-R diagram
    surface temperature, absolute magnitude, spectral types, star types
  108. All stars begin their lives as
    protostars
  109. What determines how long a star will live
    mass
  110. What is the MIlky way
    our galaxy
  111. what is its shape
    spiral
  112. what is the elctromagnetic spectrum
    Arrangement of electro magnetic radiation
  113. what are the different types of waves found on the electromagnetic spectrum
    radiowaves, infared radiation, visible light, ultra violet, radiation, x- rays, gamma rays
  114. How are they classified
    Wavelength and frequency
  115. What is the difference between apparent magnitude and absolute magnitude
    • apparent is how bright it is from earth
    • absolute is the actual brightness af 10pc away

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