bio ch 2 vocab.txt

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Erinizzle
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63316
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bio ch 2 vocab.txt
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2011-01-31 21:32:29
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human bio
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ch 2
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  1. acid
    molecules tending to raise the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution and to lower its pH numerically.
  2. adenine (A):
    one of the four nitrogen bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and RNA.
  3. ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
    nucleotide with two phosphate groups and become ATP.
  4. amino acid
    nucleotide with two phosphate groups that can accept another phosphate group and become ATP.
  5. atom
    smallest particle of an element that displays the properties of the element.
  6. atomic mass
    mass of an atom equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons with the nucleus.
  7. atomic number
    number of protons within the nucleus of an atom
  8. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
    nucleotide with three phosphate groups. the breakdown of ATP into ADP and P makes energy available for energy - requiring processes in cells.
  9. base
    molecules tending to lower the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution and raise the pH numerically.
  10. buffer
    substance or group of substances that tend to resist pH changes of a solution, thus stabilizing its relative acidity and basicity.
  11. calorie
    the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 ^degree C.
  12. carbohydrate
    class of organic compounds that includes monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
  13. cellulose
    polysaccharide that is the major complex carbohydrate in plant cell walls.
  14. complementary paired bases
    • Hydrogen bonding between particular bases;
    • in DNA thymine (T) pairs with adenine (A),
    • and guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C);
    • in RNA, uracil (U) pairs with A,
    • and G pairs with C.
  15. compound
    substance having two or more different elements united chemically in a fixed ratio.
  16. covalent bond
    chemical bond in which atoms share one pair of electrons.
  17. cytosine (C)
    one of four nitrogen bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and RNA.
  18. dehydration reaction
    chemical reaction resulting in a covalent bond with the accompanying loss of a water molecule
  19. denaturation
    loss of normal shape by an enzyme so that it no longer functions; caused by a less than optimal pH or temperature.
  20. dissacharide
    sugar that contains two units of a monosaccharide (ex: maltose)
  21. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    nucleic acid polymer produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar deoxyribose; the genetic material of nearly all organisms.
  22. electron
    negative subatomic particle, moving about in an energy level around the nucleus of an atom.
  23. element
    substance that cannot be broken down into substances with different properties; composed of only one type of atom.
  24. emulsification
    breaking up of fat globules into smaller droplets by the action of bile salts or any other emulsifier.
  25. fat
    organic molecule that contains glycerol and fatty acids; found in adipose tissue.
  26. fatty acid
    molecule that contains a hydrocarbon chain and ends with an acid group/
  27. glucose
    six-carbon sugar that organisms degrade as a source of energy during cellular respiration
  28. glycogen
    storage polysaccharide composed of glucose molecules joined in a linear fashion but having numerous branches.
  29. guanine (G)
    one of four nitrogen-containing bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and RNA; pairs with cytosine.
  30. hemoglobin
    iron-containing pigment in red blood cells that combines with and transports oxygen.
  31. hexose
    six-carbon sugar
  32. hydrogen bond
    weak bond that arises between a slightly positive hydrogen atom of one molecule and a slightly negative atom of another, or between parts of the same molecule.
  33. hydrolysis reaction
    splitting of a compound by the addition of water, with the H+ being incorporated in one fragment and the OH- in another.
  34. hydrophilic
    type of molecule that interacts with water by dissolving in water and/or foaming hydrogen bonds with water molecules.
  35. hydrophobic
    type of molecule that does not interact with water because it is nonpolar.
  36. ion
    charged particle that carries a negative or positive charge.
  37. ionic bond
    chemical bond in which ions are attracted to one another by opposite charges.
  38. isotope
    one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but a different atomic mass due to the number of neurons.
  39. lipid
    class of organic compounds that tends to be soluble only in nonpolar solvents, such as alcohol; includes fats and oils.
  40. macromolecule
    extremely large biological molecule; refers specifically to proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, lipids, and complexes of these.
  41. mass
    sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus.
  42. mass number
    the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in the nucleus of an atom.
  43. matter
    anything that takes up space and has mass
  44. mole
    a unit of scientific measurement for atoms, ions, and molecules.
  45. molecule
    union of two or more atoms of the same element; also, the smallest part of a compound that retains the properties of the compound.
  46. monosaccharide
    simple sugar; a carbohydrate that cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis (ex: glucose)
  47. neutron
    neutral subatomic particle, located in the nucleus and having a weight of approximately one atomic mass unit.
  48. nucleotide
    monomer of DNA and RNA consisting of a 5-carbon sugar bonded to a nitrogen-containing base and a phosphate group.
  49. nucleus
    membrane bounded organelle that contains chromosomes and controls the structure and function of the cell.
  50. oil
    substance, usually of plant origin and liquid at room temperature, formed when a glycerol molecule reacts with three fatty acid molecules.
  51. orbital
    pathway in which electrons travel around the nucleus of an atom.
  52. organic
    molecule that always contains carbon and hydrogen, and often contains oxygen as well; organic molecules are associated with living things.
  53. organic molecule
    type of molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen - and often contains oxygen also.
  54. pentose
    five-carbon sugar. deoxyribose is the pentose sugar found in DNA; ribose is a pentose sugar found in RNA.
  55. peptide bond
    type of covalent bond that joins two amino acids.
  56. pH scale
    measurement scale for hydrogen ion concentration
  57. phospholipid
    molecule that forms the bilayer of the cell's membranes; has a polar, hydrophilic head bonded to two nonpolar, hydrophobic tails.
  58. polar
    combination of atoms in which the electrical charge is not distributed symmetrically.
  59. polypeptide
    polymer of many amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
  60. polysaccharide
    polymer made from sugar monomers; the polysaccharides starch and glycogen are polymers of glucose monomers.
  61. protein
    molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides
  62. proton
    positive subatomic particle, located in the nucleus and having a weight of approximately one atomic mass unit.
  63. radioisotope
    unstable form of an atom that spontaneously emits radiation in the form of radioactive particles or radiant energy.
  64. RNA (ribonucleic acid)
    nucleic acid produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar ribose; occurs in three forms: messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA.
  65. saturated fatty acid
    fatty-acid molecule that lacks double bonds between the atoms of its carbon chain
  66. starch
    storage polysaccharide found in plants that is composed of glucose molecules joined in a linear fashion with few side chains.
  67. steroid
    type of lipid molecule having a complex of four carbon rings; examples are cholesterol, progesterone, and testosterone.
  68. thymine (T)
    one of four nitrogen containing bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA; pairs with adenine.
  69. tracer
    substance having an attached radioisotope that allows a researcher to track its whereabouts in a biological system.
  70. trans fat
    fats, which occur naturally in meat and dairy products of ruminants, that are also industrially created through partial hydrogenation of plant oils and animal fats.
  71. trigyceride
    neutral fat composed of glycerol and three fatty acids.
  72. unsaturated fatty acid
    fatty-acid molecule that has one or more double bonds between the atoms of its carbon chain.
  73. uracil (U)
    the base in RNA that replaces thymine found in DNA; pairs with adenine.

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