Davis_pt2OBJ_Principles

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Anonymous
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6336
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Davis_pt2OBJ_Principles
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2010-02-08 09:18:38
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step by step types of genes
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  1. Regarding cancer genes and malignancy, Which gene is the growth-promoting or death-inhibiting cellular genes?
    Protooncogenes – growth-promoting or death-inhibiting cellular genes. They become activated oncogenes.
  2. There are 3 types of oncogenes namely: Ras family, Bcl-2 protein, HER-2/Neu.
    Which one is Anti-apoptotic?
    Bcl-2 protein - anti-apoptotic (resists programmed cell death)
  3. There are 3 types of oncogenes namely: Ras family, Bcl-2 protein, HER-2/Neu.
    Which one is HOMOLOGOUS to EGFR family and carries a danger with overexpression?
    HER-2/Neu: glycoprotein receptor with tyrosine kinase activity homologous to members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. Overexpression is associated with excessive cellular proliferation, poorer prognosis (breast cancer), and resistance to certain anticancer drugs.
  4. There are 3 types of oncogenes namely: Ras family, Bcl-2 protein, HER-2/Neu.
    WHich one is the commonest?
    RAS family-very common; delivers signals from cell surface, triggering a cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases, which influence cell growth and proliferation
  5. Among the 4 major Cancer Genes: ProtoOncogenes, Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes and DNA Mismatch Repair Genes (MMR)
    Whaich one regulate and inhibit inappropriate growth and proliferation?
    Tumor-suppressor genes - regulate and inhibit inappropriate growth and proliferation through cell cycle regulation, maintaining genetic stability, and initiating apoptosis; loss or mutation of these genes can result in a loss of control over normal cell growth.
  6. Among the 4 major Cancer Genes: ProtoOncogenes, Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes and DNA Mismatch Repair Genes (MMR)
    Whaich one homeostatic genes responsible for correcting spontaneous errors introduced and left uncorrected by DNA polymerase?
    DNA Mismatch Repair (MMR) Genes - homeostatic genes responsible for correcting spontaneous errors introduced and left uncorrected by DNA polymerase and through DNA damage induced by various mutagens
  7. The two types of Tumor Suppressor Genes are p53 and BRCA1, BRCA2. Which one Regulates apoptosis unlike the Bcl-2 protein which resists Apoptosis?
    p53-Regulates apoptosis; loss or mutation of p53 may allow damaged cells to continue to grow and proliferate, rather than die.
  8. The two types of Tumor Suppressor Genes are p53 and BRCA1, BRCA2. Which one is associated with increased breast cancer risk?
    BRCA1, BRCA2 – mutations associated with inherited breast cancer risk
  9. MMR genes are responsible for fixing mismatches in nucleotide repeats found in DNA. Which MMR genes are inherited in patients with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)?
    Germline mutations of MLH1, MSH2
  10. Altered EPIGENETIC modification results in the loss of normal cellular function and therefore cancer cells. What are the three mechanisms of epigenetic modification?
    • Mechanisms of epigenetic modifications include:
    • Histone acetylation
    • DNA methylation
    • RNA interference

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