Racial and Ethnic

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Racial and Ethnic
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2011-02-01 16:42:19
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Racial Ethnic
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Racial and Ethnic- Exam 1
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  1. A category of human beings with distinctive physical characteristics transmitted by descent, and set in a racialized hierarchy
    race
  2. A group socially distinguished or set apart,
    by others or by itself, primarily on the basis of cultural or national-origin
    characteristics
    ethnic group
  3. institutionalized system of racially oppressive practices
    racism
  4. Treatment or consideration based on class or category rather than individual merit; partiality or prejudice
    discrimination
  5. This is the principle that bringing people together who are in conflict (or where one is bullying the other), the conflict will subside as they get to understand one another. The premise of Allport's theory states that under appropriate conditions interpersonal contact is one of the most effective ways to reduce prejudice between majority and minority group members.
    contact hypothesis
  6. A stratification of and substantial inequality among physically distinct groups
    racial hierarchy
  7. The process by which those in the dominant
    white group, especially its elites, have defined and constructed certain groups
    as being racially inferior or superior for the purposes of societal placement
    and of group enrichment, segregation, or oppression
    racialization
  8. A social group that persons inside or outside the group have decided is important to single out as inferior of superior, typically on the
    basis of real or alleged physical characteristics selected subjectively
    racial group
  9. A group socially distinguished or set apart,
    by others or by itself, primarily on the basis of cultural or national-origin
    characteristics
    ethnic group
  10. A group of people who, because of their physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out from others in the society in which they live for differential and unequal treatment and who therefore regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination
    minority group
  11. A group of people who, because of their physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out from others in the society in which they live for differential and unequal treatment and who therefore regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination
    subordinate group
  12. racial or ethnic group with the greatest power and resources in a society
    majority group
  13. The “majority group”; racial or ethnic group with the greatest power and resources in a society
    dominant group
  14. Typically includes more than the racist ideology and is an organized set of racial ideas, stereotypes, images, emotions, and inclinations
    to discriminate
    racial frame
  15. Defined by Social Psychologist Gordon Allport, “Thinking ill of others without sufficient warrant”. An antipathy based on faulty generalization
    prejudice
  16. Overgeneralization associated with a racial or
    ethnic category that goes beyond existing evidence
    stereotype
  17. White beliefs that serious racial discrimination does not exist today and that black Americans in particular are making illegitimate demands for social changes
    symbolic/modern racism
  18. Racially hostile acts of an individual directed at one or more members of another racial group (ex-Actions of white Klan-type terrorists bombing a black church)
    individual racism
  19. Institutionalized practices that differentially and
    negatively affect members of a subordinate racial group (ex- Children of color suffering because of inadequate health care facilities in many cities)
    institutional racism
  20. Actions carried out by members of dominant groups, or their representatives, that have a differential and harmful effect on members of subordinate groups
    discrimination
  21. Unequal and harmful treatment of members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups that is obvious to the victim but not as overt as traditional “door-slamming”
    subtle discrimination
  22. Harmful treatment of members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups that is hidden and difficult to document
    covert discrimination
  23. Both consciously and unconsciously, racism is enforced and maintained by the legal, cultural, religious, educational, economic, political, environmental, and military institutions of societies
    systemic discrimination
  24. A collective movement to establish or improve the legal and political rights of a subordinate racial or ethnic group
    civil rights movement
  25. For a limited time or in certain places have used racial screening criteria to overcome a small part of the past and present discrimination that targets racially oppressed people
    affirmative action programs
  26. Deflects attention from the large scale patterns of institutionalized discrimination still directed by whites against racially oppressed people
    reverse discrimination
  27. A conceptual framework used to interpret or
    explain some aspect of everyday existence
    theory
  28. Migration primarily by choice. Also termed “colonization migration”.
    voluntary migration
  29. The deliberate and systematic extermination of one group by another (ex-Native American societies)
    genocide
  30. The culture of resistance found among
    subordinate groups
    oppositional culture
  31. A social hierarchy in which men as a group dominate women as a group, especially in terms of socioeconomic power and resources
    patriarchal system
  32. Assesses how migration across national
    boundaries takes place within a highly developed global capitalistic context in which the imperialistic actions of major industrial (core) countries often have (intended or unintended) effects on international migration flows from countries in the periphery. Emphasizes that individual migrants tend to migrate along family and friendship networks. Views immigration as an ongoing process through which ideas, resources, and people change locations and develop meanings in multiple settings.
    transnationalism
  33. Racial and ethnic theories that accent patterns of inclusion – the orderly integration and assimilation of particular racial and ethnic groups to a dominant culture
    order theories
  34. Racial and ethnic theories that accent the persisting and great inequalities in the power and resource distributions associated with
    racial or ethnic subordination in a society
    power-conflict theories
  35. The more or less orderly adaptation of a migrating group to the ways and institutions of an established host group
    assimilation
  36. Fundamental societal forces lead to recurring cycles of contact and assimilation in intergroup history. Cycle of contacts, competition, accommodation, and eventual assimilation is apparently progressive and irreversible
    race relations cycle
  37. Penetration of cliques & associations of core
    society at primary group level
    structural assimilation
  38. A racial or ethnic group that occupies an in-between position in terms of societal power and resources (ex- Korean, Cuban, and
    Jewish business people)
    middleman minority
  39. The regular interaction of racism and sexism leading to the societal oppression of women of color
    gendered racism
  40. What is happening in the immigrant’s home country. (ex- High unemployment or
    intergroup hostilities)
    push factors
  41. A view of ethnicity that emphasizes the relative stability of ethnic population boundaries over
    time and the intergroup competition over resources that results from shifts in these boundaries because of migration (–Robert Park)
    competition theory
  42. The sociological theory that, over time, immigrant groups not only come to share cultural traits with the host group but also retain many of their own nationality characteristics
    ethnogenesis
  43. The view that each ethnic group has the democratic right to retain its own cultural heritage without being forced to assimilate to the dominant culture
    cultural pluralism
  44. Immigrants to the U.S. lose their
    racial and ethnic identities as they mix together into one new American blend
    melting pot
  45. Change of one group’s important cultural patterns to those of core society
    cultural assimilation
  46. Distinctive social and economic niches in numerous U.S. cities
    ethnic enclaves
  47. The white prejudices, stereotypes, emotions, discriminatory practices, and institutions that are integral to the long-term domination of Americans of color
    systemic racism
  48. Immigrants attracted by portrayal, accurate or inaccurate, of better conditions
    pull factors
  49. The view of things in which one’s own group is the center of everything and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it
    ethnocentrism
  50. Process in which individuals forget about, minimize, or deny characteristics in themselves by exaggerating them in others
    projection
  51. Unjust treatment of one group/person by another on the basis of race alone; a doctrine that one race is superior
    racism
  52. Determines who is the majority/dominant group and who are the minority/subordinate groups, not numbers.
    power
  53. An interactionist perspective stating that intergroup contact between people of equal status in noncompetitive circumstances will reduce prejudice
    contact hypothesis
  54. Tendency to transfer responsibility for failure to some vulnerable group rather than accepting the guilt
    scapegoating
  55. Type 1: unprejudiced nondiscriminators
    Type 2: unprejudiced discriminators
    Type 3: prejudiced nondiscriminators
    Type 4: prejudiced discriminators
    Merton’s typology
  56. Tendency to approach or withdraw from a [racial] group
    social distance
  57. When people have a need to control others who are less powerful (like a master-servant mentality).
    paternalism
  58. A tendency to be afraid of or fear people who are perceived to be different from oneself
    xenophobia
  59. Is not mutually dependent (can have one w/out the other). Social situation plays an integral role (commitment to one’s beliefs; control). Prejudice and discrimination are not limited to the dominant group (but are most effective for it).
    prejudice-discrimination relationship
  60. Forceable removal
    involuntary migration
  61. Made up of, involving, or acting on behalf of various races: a multiracial society.
    Having ancestors of several or various races.
    multiracial
  62. When white people still make blatantlyracist commentaries and racist performances, such as racist joking or frequent use of racist epithets, when they are in settings with white friends or relatives.
    backstage racism
  63. A historical colloquial term in the United States for the social classification as black of individuals with any African ancestry; it is an example of hypodescent, the automatic assignment of children of a mixed union between different socioeconomic or ethnic groups to the group with the lower status
    one-drop-of-blood rule
  64. race examples
    white, black, Asian, Native American, Hispanic
  65. ethnic group examples
    • –Language, attitudes, food habits, etc.
    • –Hispanic, Jewish, Irish, Asian
  66. Concept of race developed by
    certain Northern Europeans who for much of their history had been largely isolated from people who were different physically or culturally
  67. Darker-skinned people were relegated to the bottom for the following:
    • -Skin color
    • -Allegedly “primitive” culture
    • -Enslavement of Africans by Europeans
  68. Immanuel Kant -- “races of mankind” (1770s)
    • One of first explicit uses of term “race”
    • in the modern sense:
    • -Biologically distinct, hierarchical categories of human beings
  69. Social scientists view “race as
    a socially constructed reality”
  70. Light-skinned “black” with none of the physical traits is regarded as black because an ancestor is known to be of African ancestry
    “One Drop Rule”
  71. Distinguished based on cultural or national-origin characteristics such as language
    Cultural Characteristics
  72. Refers to the country and national culture from which the person or the ancestors came
    National Origin
  73. -Saw ethnic groups broadly as “human groups that entertain a subjective belief in their common descent”
    -A sense of common ancestry, consciousness of shared experiences and of shared cultural patterns is important in shaping a group’s identity
    Sociologist Max Weber
  74. The shared values, understandings, symbols, and practices of a group of people
    Culture
  75. Learning racial and ethnic framing begins at a young age and becomes internalized
    inner speech
  76. Characterized by a loyalty to values, beliefs, and members of one’s own group
    Positive Ethnocentrism
  77. Externalization function of prejudice
    • The transfer of an individual’s internal psychological problem onto an external object, such as a particular racial group, as a solution to that internal psychological problem
    • -Sometimes attribute racial or ethnic prejudice to special emotional problems of “sick” or “abnormal” individuals
  78. Characterized by a high degree of submission to authority, a tendency to stereotype, great concern for status, a view of the world as threatening, and an intolerance of out-groups that occupy socially subordinate positions
    Authoritarian Personality
  79. Favoring rigid segregation and extreme stereotypes has largely been replaced by modern racism, which accepts modest racial desegregation but resists large-scale changes for full integration of U.S. society
    “Old-fashioned racism”
  80. Key dimensions of discrimination include
    • (a) Motivation
    • (b) Discriminatory Actions
    • (c) Effects
    • (d) The relation between motivation and actions
    • (e) The relation between actions and effects
    • (f) The immediate institutional context (g) The larger societal context
  81. Viewed racial prejudice as the whole complex of valuations and beliefs which are behind discriminatory behavior on the part of white Americans
    Gunnar Myrdal: An American Dilemma (1944)
  82. Thought- For some people, discrimination is motivated not by their own prejudices, but by fear of the prejudices of others in their social group
    Sociologist Robert K. Merton
  83. Racism is a system of structural inequalities and a historical process
    Macro perspective
  84. Racism involves individual discriminators whose specific actions are racist only when they activate existing structural racial inequalities in the system
    Micro perspective
  85. Harmful action taken intentionally by a member of a dominant racial or ethnic group against members of a subordinate group, without the support of other members of the dominant group in the immediate social or community context
    Isolate Discrimination
  86. Harmful action taken intentionally by a small number of dominant-group individuals acting in concert against members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups, without the direct support of the norms and of most other dominant group members in the immediate social or community context
    Small-Group Discrimination
  87. Organizationally prescribed or community-prescribed action that by intention has a differential and negative effect on members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups
    Direct Institutionalized Discrimination
  88. Dominant-group practices that have a harmful effect on members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups even though the organizational or community-prescribed norms or regulations guiding those actions have been established with no intent to harm
    Indirect Institutionalized Discrimination
  89. Racialization can be seen as the process by which
    the dominant white group has defined and constructed certain groups as being racially inferior/superior for the purposes of societal placement and of group enrichment, segregation, or oppression.
  90. The one most important reason why certain selected physical characteristics such as skin color have been used as the basis for distinguishing human groups is
    some clear signal was needed to identify the exploited group
  91. The term 'ethnic group'
    is used by some social scientists to distinguish groups on the basis of cultural and nationality characteristics
  92. A minority group
    is singled out by the dominant group on the basis of physical or cultural traits
  93. Well-institutionalized patterns of discrimination that cut across major political, economic, and social organizations in a society can be termed ___.
    systemic discrimination
  94. An organized set of racial ideas, narratives, stereotypes, images, emotions, and inclinations to discriminate is known as
    racial frame
  95. "Modern racism" is characterized by
    resistance to large-scale racial integration
  96. An early draft of the Declaration of Independence denounced slavery and blamed it on the English king
    true
  97. A stereotype is an overgeneralization associated with a racial or ethnic category that goes beyond existing evidence
    true
  98. Covert discrimination is difficult to document and prove.
    true
  99. In the racial and ethnic stratification system that exists in the United States,
    ascribed group characteristics such as race or ethnicity are major criteria for social position and rewards
  100. According to the ___ perspective, immigrants to the U. S. lose their racial and ethnic identities as they mix together in one new American blend.
    melting pot
  101. These theorists believe that each ethnic group has the democratic right to retain its own cultural heritage without being forces to assimilate to the dominant culture.
    cultural-pluralism theorists
  102. The assertion that ethnicity is a fundamental part of the physiological and psychological self is reflective of the ___ perspective.
    biosocial
  103. According to competition theorists, intergroup conflict and competition is the result of
    an attempt by two or more ethnic groups to secure the same resources
  104. These theorists place great emphasis on economic stratification, the racial-ethnic hierarchy, and power issues.
    power-conflict
  105. Initiation, mechanisms, privileges, maintenance, rationalization, and resistance of oppression are aspects of which social theory?
    systemic racism
  106. High unemployment and intergroup hostilities are push factors that can shape both the migration and the outcome of the contact that results from migration.
    true
  107. Genocide is the accidental extermination of one group by another.
    false
  108. Cultural assimilation can be seen as only a two-way process by which two groups change important cultural patterns in order to create one common culture.
    false

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