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Nonverbal channels account for at least
2/3 of all meaning conveyed through an act of communication.
Nonverbal Communication channels often
carry morerelational (rather than content) messages.
Kinesics can be used to enhance persuasion because they help sustain attention, interest, and comprehension
Vocalics and paralanguage
rate, tone, volume…
We make many judgments about credibility from vocalics/paralanguage
Eye contact can signal
lattitude, interest, and dominance-submission
Facial expression can
reinforce messages -- or contradict it if we want to modify messages
Time (Chronemics): use of time to communicate.
Violation of norms of the use of time
_________ are the two
principles underlying touch.
Power and liking/attraction
_________ usually lead to a decrease in persuasion (but may depend on reward valence)
Violation of touch-based norms
The violation of proxemics can be used to
enhance or detract from persuasive success.
Types of proxemics
Territoriality: claiming rights to an area
Personal space: the zone of space that surrounds our bodies
-invisible, variable, volume of space surrounding an individual that defines his or her preferred distance from others (Burgoon)
-Size and shape depends on cultural norms and individual preferences
-Conflicting approach-avoidance needs for affiliation and privacy
Proxemic zones of Americans
- - Intimate distance (0 to 18 inches)
- -Personal distance (18 inches to 4 feet)
- -Social distance (4 to 10 feet)
- -Public distance (10+ feet)
cultures that prefer high contact between people want to touch, smell, and make eye contact the people with whomthey are communicating.
Levels of sensory involvement
- -High: South Americans, Southern and Eastern Europeans, Arabic cultures
- -Low: Asian cultures
- -Moderate: Northern Europeans, North Americans
Burgoon’s nonverbal expectancy violations model suggests that
under some circumstances, violating social norms and personal expectations is “a superior strategy to conformity”
heightened state of awareness, orienting response, or mental alertness that stimulates review of relationship
what people predict will happen, rather than what they desire
perceived positive or negative value assigned to breach of expectations, regardless ofthe violator
Communicator reward valence
- sum of positive and negative attributes brought to the encounter, plus potential to
- reward or punish in future
The following things will increase the likelihood that
a violation will be interpreted positively:
- -Status, ability, attractiveness
- -Message content that conveys liking, acceptance, appreciation, and trust
- -The power to provide the receiver with rewards in the future