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mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. (p. 313)
general intelligence (g):
a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person’s total score. (p. 314)
Several distinct abilities tend to cluster together and to correlate enough to define a small general intelligence factor.
Howard Gardner 8 intelegences
- views intelligence as multiple abilities that come in packages
- savant syndrome: a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing. (p. 314)-mainly males
Memory whiz Kim Peek
looks at things and can memorize a page in 10 seconds
Gardners 8 intelgences
- logical mathematical
A general intelligence score is..
like the overall rating of a city—which tells you something but doesn’t give you much specific information about its schools, streets, or nightlife.
STERNBERG’S 3 INTELLIGENCES
- Analytical (academic problem-solving) intelligence is assessed by intelligence tests, which present well-defined problems having a single right answer. Such tests predict school grades
- Creative intelligence is demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas.
- Practical intelligence is required for everyday tasks, which may be ill-defined, with multiple solutions. i.e. Business executives who score relatively high on this test have tended to earn high salaries and receive high performance ratings.
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas. (p. 317)
Sternberg 5 components of creativity
- Expertise, a well-developed base of knowledge, furnishes the ideas, images, and phrases we use as mental building block
- imaginative thinking skills
- venturesome personality seeks new experiences
- Intrinsic motivation is being driven more by interest, satisfaction
- A creative environment
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions. (p. 318)
a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores. (p. 319)
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a givenlevel of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8. (p. 319)
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet’s original intelligence test. (p. 319) for teens-adults
intelligence quotient (IQ): German psychologist William Stern
defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca × 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100. (p. 319)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS):
the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests. (p. 320)
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group. (p. 321)
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical andpsychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes. (p. 321)
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting. (p. 321)
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. (See also content validity and predictive validity). (p. 322)
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest. (p. 322)
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. (Also calledcriterion-related validity.) (p. 323)
, for example, is a disorder of varying severity caused by an extra chromosome 21 in the person’s genetic makeup.
IQ rising ove the years
For reasons no one quite understands, overall intelligence test performance has been rising during the twentieth century. (Is it greater test sophistication? Better nutrition?
The existence of savant syndrome—limited mental ability combined with an exceptional specific skill—seems to support
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences.
Sternberg’s three aspects of intelligence are
academic, practical, and creative.
Emotionally intelligent people tend to
succeed in their careers
characteristic of a creative person?
- (c) A venturesome personality
- (d) Imaginative thinking skills
- (a) Expertise
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) yields an overall intelligence score as well as separate verbal and performance (nonverbal) scores. The WAIS is best able to tell us
how the test-taker compares with other adults in vocabulary and arithmetic reasoning.
The Stanford-Binet, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children are known to have very high reliability (about +.9). This means that
the test yields consistent results, for example on retesting.
- Intelligence appears to be polygenetic, with many genes involved, each accounting for much less than 1 percent of intelligence variations
- twins have similar test scores
- During childhood, the intelligence test scores of adoptive siblings correlate modestly. Over time, adopted children accumulate experience in their differing adoptive families
- Mental similarities between adopted children and their adoptive families wane with age
- Genetic influences—not environmental ones—become more apparent as we accumulate life experienc
EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
- environmental conditions can override genetic differences
- Malnutrition also plays a role. Relieve infant malnutrition with nutritional supplements, and poverty’s effect on physical and cognitive development lessens
provide at least a small boost to emotional intelligence—creating better attitudes toward learning and reducing school dropouts and criminality- it still deponds on our self/effort/practice
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied. (p. 327)
Our genes shape the experiences that shape us
Gender Similarities and Differences
- Spelling Females: are better spellers
- Verbal ability: Females excel at verbal fluency and remembering words
- Emotion-detecting ability: - about the same- In 20 of 21 countries, females displayed an edge in math computation, but males scored higher in math problem solving
Light-skinnedEuropeans and dark-skinned Africans are genetically closer than are dark-skinned Africans and dark-skinned Aboriginal Australians.
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. (p. 333
Are the tests discriminatory?
The strongest support for heredity’s influence on intelligence is the finding that
identical twins, but not other siblings, have nearly identical intelligence test scores.
To say that the heritability of intelligence is about 50 percent means that 50 percent of
the variation in intelligence within a group of people is attributable to genetic factors.
The environmental influence that has the clearest, most profound effect on intellectual development is
being raised in conditions of extreme deprivation