Gilded Age Terms
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Communities whose growth and development was shaped by the use of streetcar lines as the main mode of transportation.
- aka Clinton and Midtown West. Neighborhood in Manhattan in NYC between 34th Street and 59th Street, from 8th Avenue to the Hudson River.
- Referred as HK by Davey Crockett.
- Danish American social reformer, muckraking journalist and social documentary photographer, known for his dedicatino to using his talent to help the impoverished NYC.
- Considered a pioneer in photography.
How the Other Half Lives
- Work of photojournalism by Riis, documenting the squalid living conditions in NYC slums in the 1880s.
- Served as a basis for future muckraking journalism by exposing the slums to NYC's upper and middle class.
- Tenements built in NYC after the Tenement House Act and before the NY State Tenement House Act. The latter required every room to have a window opening to plain air. Dumbbell comes from the shape of the tenement (narrow waist, wide facing the street/backyard and narrowed in between buildings.)
- Built to for waves of European immigrants.
John A. Roebling
- German-born civil engineer famous for his wire rope suspension bridge designs.
- Designer of the Brooklyn Bridge.
American architect who is considered the "father of skyscrapers."
Chicago School of Architecture
A group of architects and engineers who developed the skyscraper. Features of Chicago School buildings are: steel frame, terra cotta, plate-glass windows and little extrovered ornamentation.
Frank Lloyd Wright
- American architect, interior designer, writer, educator who designed thousands of projects and 500 completed works.
- Recognized by the American Institute of Architects as "the greatest architect of all time."
Evangelical Christian church founded in 1865 in the UK known for its charitable work that is in over 100 countries, including the United States. Founded by William and Catherine Booth.
- American novelist and journalist who pioneered the naturalist school. Known for portrayl of characters by their persistance against obstacles, rather than by their morality.
- His literary situations resemble studies of nature instead of choice and agency.
George Washington Plunkitt
- NY state senator, esp. powerful in NYC.
- Known as part of NY's Tammany Hall machine.
- William M. Tweed: American politician who directed the Erie Railway, the Tenth Nat'l Bank and the NY Printing Company.
- Known as the boss of Tammany Hall.
Tammany Hall, NYC
- Dem Party political machine that had a major role in controlling NYC politics.
- An efficient and corrupt machine based on patronage and graft.
- German-born American caricaturis/cartoonist considered to be the Father of the American Cartoon.
- Characters include the modern Santa Claus, Uncle Sam and the Republican elephant and Democratic donkey.
F. W. Woolworth's
- Founder of F.W. Woolworth Co who operated discount stores that priced merch at 5 and 10 cents. Pioneer of purchasing merch from the manufactures and fixed prices.
- FWWC is now Foot Locker.
- Founder of the Chicago-based department stores: Marshall Field and Co.
- Company was eventually converted to Macy's.
- Was one of the largest retailers in the US founded by Aaron M. Ward.
- Was originally a department store but converted to an online retailer/catalog merchant in 2001.
Beginning as a mail order business, Sears grew to be the largest retailer in the US by the mid-20th cent. It's catalog program was eventually discontinued.
American economist and the chair of the Wharton School of Business at the University of Penn. He believed that there soon would be enough wealth to satisfy people's basic needs and that the econ would shift from a focus on production to a focus on consumption.
- US Army officer and Union gen who fought in the Civil War.
- In SanFran after the war, he got a patent on the cable car railway system. In NJ, he was president of the Theosophical Society.
National Collegiate Athletic Association: Semi-voluntary association of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada.
- Theatrical genre of entertainment in the US and Canada from the 1880s to the 1930s. Each performance had a series of unrelated acts grouped together on a common bll.
- "The heart of American showbusiness."
- Elaborate theatrical productions on Broadway in NYC from 19007-1931 that were inspired by the Folies Bergeres of Paris.
- The shows' producers were the turn of the cent titans Klaw and Erlanger.
D. W. Griffith
American film director who is best known for The Birth of a Nation, sparking much controversy.
Birth of a Nation 1915
- American silent flim set during/after the Civil War which was based on The Clansman by Thomas Dixon.
- Highest grossing film of the silent-film era.
US popular works of ficiton that eventually morphed into today's paperbacks, comic books, TV show, movies, etc. based on the DN genres.
Presents little to no legit, well-researched news that uses eye-catching headlines to sell more copies.
- Hungarian-American newspaper publisher of the St. Louis Post Dispatch and the New York World who introduced the techniques of new journalism to the newspapers he acquired in the 1880s.
- Became a leading nat'l figure in the Dem party who crusaded against big business and corruption.
William Randolph Hearst
- American newspaper publisher who took control of the San Fan Examiner in 1887 from his father. He then moved to NYC and took over The NY Journal.
- Warred with Pulitzer's NY World-->yellow journalism.
American-born writer, regarded as one of the key figures of 19th-century literary realism.
- Philosophical movement that includes those who claim that an ideology or proposition can be said to be true if and only if it works satisfactorily, that the meaning of a proposition is to be found in the practical consequences of accepting it, and that impractical ideas are to be rejected.
- William James' eyes, was that the truth of an
- idea needed to be tested to prove its validity.
- American psychologist and philosopher who was trained as a medical doctor and wrote influential books on the young science of psychology, educational psychology, psychology of religious experience and mysticism, and pragmatism.
- Brother of Henry James
American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Important early developer of pragmatism and one of the founders of functional psychology and also was a major representative of the progressive and progressive populist philosophies of schooling during the first half of the 20th century.
Frederick Law Olmstead
- American journalist, landscape designer and is popularly considered to be the father of American landscape architecture.
- Famous for co-designing many well-known urban parks with his senior partner, Calvert Vaux, including Central Park and Prospect Park in NYC.
Oliver Wendell Holmes
- American physician,
- professor, lecturer, and author who was regarded by his peers as one of the best writers of the 19th century and is considered a member of the Fireside Poets. His most famous prose works are the "Breakfast-Table" series, which began with The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table (1858).
- He is recognized as an important medical reformer.
- Era of rapid economic and population growth in the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction eras of the late 19th century.
- The term was coined by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner in their 1873 book, The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today.
- Samuel Langhorne Clemens: American author and humorist.
- Noted for his novels Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.
- Political party with an anti-monopoly ideology that was active between 1874 and 1884. Referred to paper money, or "greenbacks," that had been issued during the American Civil War and afterward.
- Opposed the shift from paper money back to a bullion coin-based monetary system.
- Faction of the United States Republican Party toward the end of the 19th century.
- They were the "traditional" Republicans who were pitted against the "Half-Breeds" (moderates) for control of the Republican Party and favored traditional machine politics.
Anyone who is mixed Native American and white European parentage.
- Republican political activists who bolted from the United States Republican Party by supporting Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the United States presidential election of 1884.
- Wwitched parties because they rejected the financial corruption associated with Republican candidate James G. Blaine
politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party and the last person to refuse a U.S. Supreme Court appointment after he had already been confirmed by the U.S. Senate.
Pendelton Act 1883
- federal law established in 1883 that stipulated that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit. The act provided selection of government employees competitive exams,
- rather than ties to politicians or political affiliation. It also made
- it illegal to fire or demote government employees for political reasons. To enforce the merit system and the judicial system, the law also created the United States Civil Service Commission.
Interstate Commerce Act 1887
- designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices.
- The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did
- not empower the government to fix specific rates. It also required that
- railroads publicize shipping rates and prohibited short haul/long haul
- fare discrimination, a form of price discrimination against smaller
- markets, particularly farmers. The Act created a federal regulatory agency, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), which it charged with monitoring railroads to ensure that they complied with the new regulations.
- The Act was the first federal law to regulate private industry in the United States.
McKinley Tariff of 1890
law enacted by the United States Congress in 1890 increasing the tariffs on some goods imported into the United States. It was named after Congressman William McKinley, who would later become President of the United States
Wilson-Gorman Tariff 1894
slightly reduced the United States tariff rates from the numbers set in the 1890 McKinley tariff and imposed a 2% income tax. It is named for William L. Wilson, Representative from West Virginia, chair of the U.S. House Ways and Means Committee, and Senator Arthur P. Gorman of Maryland, both Democrats.
- serving as a center for many farming communities, the Grange was an effective advocacy group
- for farmers and their agendas, including fighting railroad monopolies
- and advocating rural mail deliveries. Indeed, the word "grange" itself
- comes from a Latin word for grain, and is related to a "granary" or,
- generically, a farm.
- agrarian economic movement amongst U.S. farmers that flourished in the 1880s. One of its goals was to end the adverse effects of the crop-lien system on farmers after the US Civil War. First formed in 1876 in Lampasas, Texas,
- the Alliance was designed to promote higher commodity prices through
- collective action by groups of individual farmers. The movement was
- strongest in the South, and was widely popular before it was destroyed by the power of commodity brokers. Despite its failure, it is regarded as the precursor to the United States Populist Party, which grew out of the ashes of the Alliance in 1892.
Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion
Mary E. Lease
- lecturer, writer, and political activist. She was an advocate of the suffrage movement as well as temperance
- but she was best known for her work with the Populist party. She was
- born to Irish immigrants Joseph P. and Mary Elizabeth (Murray) Clyens,
- in Ridgway, Pennsylvania. In 1895, she wrote The Problem of Civilization Solved, and in 1896, she moved to New York City where she edited the democratic newspaper, World. In addition, she worked as an editor for the National Encyclopedia of American Biography. Mary Elizabeth Lease was also known as Mary Ellen Lease. She was called "Queen Mary" (after the British Queen consort, Mary of Teck) and "Mother Lease" by her supporters, and "Mary Yellin" by her enemies. Lease died in Callicoon, New York.
Populist [People's] Party
- short-lived political party
- in the United States established in 1891. It was most important in
- 1892-96, then rapidly faded away. Based among poor, white cotton
- farmers in the South (especially North Carolina, Alabama, and Texas)
- and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the Plains states (especially Kansas
- and Nebraska), it represented a radical crusading form of agrarianism
- and hostility to banks, railroads, and elites generally. It sometimes
- formed coalitions with labor unions, and in 1896 endorsed the
- Democratic presidential nominee, William Jennings Bryan. The terms "populist" and "populism" are commonly used for anti-elitist appeals in opposition to established interests and mainstream parties.
James B. Weaver
politician and member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Iowa as a member of the Greenback Party. He ran for President two times on third party tickets in the late 19th century. An opponent of the gold standard and national banks, he is most famous as the presidential nominee of the Populist Party in the 1892 election.
party program adopted at the formative convention of the Populist (or People's) Party held in Omaha, Nebraska on July 4, 1892.
- adult education movement in the United States,
- highly popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Chautauqua
- assemblies expanded and spread throughout rural America until the
- mid-1920s. The Chautauqua brought entertainment and culture for the
- whole community, with speakers, teachers, musicians, entertainers,
- preachers and specialists of the day. Former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt was quoted as saying that Chautauqua is "the most American thing in America."
Panic of 1893
- economic depression in the United States that began in that year. Similar to the Panic of 1873,
- this panic was marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and
- shaky railroad financing which set off a series of bank failures.
- Compounding market overbuilding and the railroad bubble, was a run on
- the gold supply (relative to silver), because of the long-established American policy of Bimetalism, which used both silver and gold metals at a fixed 16:1 rate for pegging the value of the US Dollar. Until the Great Depression, the Panic of '93 was considered the worst depression the United States had ever experienced.
- protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time. Officially named the Commonweal in Christ,
- its nickname came from its leader and was more enduring. It was the
- first significant popular protest march on Washington and the
- expression "Enough food to feed Coxey's Army" originates from this
Crime of '73
Fourth Coinage Act was enacted by the United States Congress in 1873 and embraced the gold standard and demonetized silver. Western mining interests and others who wanted silver in circulation years later labeled this measure the "Crime of '73". Gold became the only metallic standard in the United States, hence putting the United States de facto on the gold standard.
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