What is the bilogical medium for all life on Earth?
How is water structured?
POlar molecule with polar covalent bonds. Oxygen has a partial negative charge, while the hydrogen has a partial positive charge. Oxygen is stronger, more electronegative, so the H electrons spend more time around oxygen giving it a more negative charge.
Four Properties of Water:
2. Moderation of temperature
3. Expansion upon freezing. (water is less dense as solid)
4. Universal solvent of life.
Explain water's high specific heat.
Specific Heat is amount of heat needed to raise or lower 1g of substance 1 degree celsius. Water is unusually high.
Ex. Boil pan of water. Pan is extremely hot (low specific heat) when water is lukewarm (high specific heat).
How does water moderate temperature?
Absorbs heat from air that is warm, releasing already stored heat to the cooler air.
Evaporative Cooling. Explain.
Evaporative cooling occurs because the hottest particles turn to gas and escape surface, leaving the coolest particles behind.This stabilizes temperature.
Heat of Vaporization.
Heat that must be absorbed for 1g of substance to turn to gas.
What are the different components of a soluton?
Solute: Dissolved by solvent
Solvent: the dissolving agent
What is a hydration shell?
Example is water surrounding a Na atom. This breaks ionic bonds by surroung agent. Molecules must be polar.
What is an acid? A base?
An acid is a subtance that will donate or increase hydronium or (H+) to a solution.
A base is a substance that reduce the amount of H+ hydronium ions by adding OH-.
Explain pH and pH scale
Used to determine how acidic or basic a solution is. Based on a logarithum from pure water. Less than 7 is acidic more than 7 is basic. Neutral is 6-8. Each level is 10x stronger.
What is a buffer?
A buffer is a solution, usually weak acid or base, that will stabilize changes in a pH. It does this by absorbing or releasing hydronium (H+) ions.
What bonds can Carbon form?
Carbon can form single, double, or triple bonds. This varies length of carbon skeleton (linear or rings)(branched or unbranched).
What are hydrocarbons?
Consist only of hydrogen and carbon. responsible as fats, oils
Release alot of energy
What is an isomer?
Compounds with same molecular formula but different structures and different properties. Bigger the structure, greater number of isomers.
What is a structural isomer?
Different bonding pattern
What is a geometric isomer?
Same bond arrangement, but different spatial arrangements.
Cis- same side
What is an enantiomer?
Mirror images of each other. (like a left and right hand).