Intro to Matter & Energy

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Author:
JPalmer
ID:
63405
Filename:
Intro to Matter & Energy
Updated:
2011-02-01 14:58:55
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Matter Phase Changes Energy
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Description:
Intoductory vocab for NYS R Chemistry Matter & Energy Unit
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  1. What is defined as the constant random motion of particles?
    Kinetic Energy is the constant random motion of particles.
  2. In the context of matter, what is fusion?
    Fusion means to melt.
  3. What is defined as when particles have no motion?
    Absolute zero is when particles have no motion.
  4. When a substance changes from a gas to a liquid, is this a chemical or physical change?
    When a substance changes from a gas to a liquid, this is a physical change.
  5. What is defined as a pure substance that can not be decomposed by normal chemical means?
    An atom is pure substance that can not be decomposed.
  6. In what units are heat and temperature recorded?
    Heat is labeled as Joules while temperature is labeled as 0C or K
  7. How much energy is released when 2 grams of water freeze?
    2 g x 334 J/g = 668 J
  8. What type of reactions release energy?
    Exothermic reactions release energy.
  9. What type of matter is 2 or more substance in a definite ratio.
    A compound is 2 or more substances in a definite ratio.
  10. In the context of chemistry, what is potential energy?
    Potential energy is stored energy due to the composition and bonds of a substance.
  11. What is the freezing point of sulfur?
    The freezing point of sulfur is same as its melting point: 386 K

  12. What numbers represent the sample when there is no increase in K E ?
    The plateaus of # 2 and # 4 represent no increase in K E

  13. Which portion of the graph represents the liquid phase?
    • Section 3 represents the liquid phase.
  14. Which sample has the highest average kinetic energy?
    a) Zn (s) at 45 o C
    b) H2O (l) at 20 o C
    c) CO2 (g) at 30 0 C
    Zn (s) at 45 o C has the highest average K E (which is measured by temp)
  15. What types of matter are classified as substances?
    Substances include elements and compounds.
  16. In a heating/cooling diagram, heat is uniformly added. Why then does the temp plateau during the phase change from solid to liquid?
    The temp plateaus during the phase change because the energy is being used to break the intermolecular forces.
  17. Define endothermic
    Endothermic is a reaction in which the substance gains energy.
  18. Give an example of an exothermic phase change.
    An example of an exothermic phase change is gas to liquid (or liquid to solid)
  19. Give an example of a common compound
    Examples of compounds include water or sugar or salt or alchohol or ammonia
  20. What is the definition of heat?
    Heat is energy that is flowing from a warmer object to a colder object.
  21. Name 4 basic types of chemical changes (reactions)
    4 basic types of chemical changes are synthesis, decomposition, single replacement , & double replacement.
  22. Steam-water equilibrium would occur in a sample at what temperature?
    a) 0 C b) 32 C c) 100 C d) 273 C
    • Steam-water equilibrium would occur in a sample at what temperature?
    • c) 100 C
  23. In terms of intermolecular forces, explain the difference between a solid and a gas.
    Solids have strong intermolecular forces while gases have almost no intermolecular forces.
  24. When a salt is dissolved in water, is this a chemical or physical change?
    Salt dissolving in water is a physical change.
  25. Of what is temperature the quantitative measure?
    Temperature is the quantitative measure of Kinetic Energy.

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