Sociology Test 2

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Sociology Test 2
2010-02-08 11:46:29

Vocab & People facts
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  1. Define "culture"
    The set of ideas and things handed down from generation to generation in a particular group or society; culture is both a product of people's actions and a constraint on their actions
  2. Define "material culture"
    Includes all those things that humans make or adopt from the raw stuff of nature: (ie. houses, forks, jewelry)
  3. Define "nonmaterial culture"
    Made up of intangible things- vary from simple to complex. (ie. our ideas about beauty, happiness, boredom)
  4. Define "symbols"
    Anything that represents something else to more than one person (ie. $ (dollar), %(percent), &(and)) Stands for something other than itself
  5. Define "language/gestures"
    Organized set of symbols, nonmaterial; made up of spoken or written words and gestures, along with rules (grammar)
  6. Define "norms"
    Socially accepted rules for behavior
  7. Who is William Graham Sumner?
    Sociologist who divided norms into two categories: folkways and mores
  8. Define "folkways"
    The most gentle of norms; casual, violations not taken seriously
  9. Define "mores/mos"
    Important norms; reflect important rules (ie. norm against unjustified assaults)
  10. Define "taboos"
    Society's most important social norms; even the thought of violating a taboo is deeply repugnant
  11. Define "sanctions (formal & informal)"
    Visible responses to behavior; may be positive or negative, formal or informal (ie. f: official responses for specific organizations in society like the church, if:individuals in social groups)
  12. Define "values"
    General or abstract ideas about what is good and desirable, as opposed to what is bad and undesirable
  13. Define "beliefs"
    Shared ideas about what is real
  14. Define "ideology"
    Shared beliefs that are distorted by economic or political condition
  15. What are "social institutions" ?
    A set of ideas about the proper response to an important societal problem; accepted and persistent constellation of statuses, roles, values, and norms that respond to important societal needs
  16. What is "cultural leveling" ?
    Occurs when different cultures come to seem alike as a result of a great deal of cultural diffusion
  17. What is "cultural diffusion" ?
    Process by which people of different cultures borrow elements of material or nonmaterial culture from one another
  18. Define "subculture"
    A group of people whose shared specialized values, norms, beliefs, or use of material culture sets them apart from other people in society
  19. Define "counterculture"
    Subculture whose values and beliefs set it not only apart from but also in opposition to the dominant culture
  20. Define "idioculture"
    Knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and customs shared by members of a small group, used by members to facilitate interaction
  21. Define "status"
  22. Define "acheived status"
  23. Define "status symbol"
  24. Define "role"
  25. Define "role strain"
  26. Define "status inconsistency"
  27. Define "role conflict"
  28. Define "master status"
  29. What is "group versus social aggregate" ?
  30. Define "primary group"
  31. Define "secondary group"
  32. Define "formal organization"
  33. What are "ideal types" ?
  34. Define "bureaucracy"
  35. What is the "iron cage" ?
  36. Define "goal displacement"
  37. Define "habitualized action"
  38. What are "attributes of social institutions" ?
  39. Define "aristocracy"
  40. Define "monarchy"
  41. Define "tyranny"
  42. Define "theocracy"
  43. Define "representative democracy"
  44. Define "animism"
  45. Define "monotheism"
  46. Define "polytheism"
  47. Define "polygeny"
  48. Define "monogamy"
  49. Define "polyandry"
  50. Define "serial monogomy"