sgu vet histo1 2-3

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sgu vet histo1 2-3
2010-02-08 12:31:41
sgu vet histo1 2 3

CT: cells, fibers, amorphous ground substance
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  1. fuction of connective tissue
    framework to support body w/ cartilage and bones
  2. what is CT composed of (3)
    • cells (11)
    • fibers (3)
    • amorphous ground substance
  3. types of CT cells (11)
    • 1. mesenchymal cells
    • 2. fibroblasts cells (also fibrocyte)
    • 3. myofibroblast
    • 4. reticular cells
    • 5. adipocytes (unilocular, multilocular)
    • 6. pericytes
    • 7. mast cells
    • 8. plasma cells
    • 9. macrophage
    • 10. pigment cells
    • 11. leucocytes
  4. function of mesenchymal cells
    reservoir of cells that can differentiate into any other CT cell
  5. structure of mesenchymal cells
    irregulary shaped with multiple processes
  6. location of mesenchymal cells
    adjacent to blood vessels
  7. what can differentiate into any other CT cell
    mesenchymal cells
  8. what is irregulary shaped w/ multi processes
    mesenchymal cells
  9. whats usually found adjacent to blodo vessels
    mesenchymal cells
  10. most common CT cell
    fibroblast cells
  11. function of fibroblast cells
    synthesis of fibers and intercellular ground substance (wound repair)
  12. what synthesizes fivers and intercellular ground substance
    fibroblats cells
  13. what are the types of fibroblast cells (3)
    • firbroblasts - active
    • fibrocyte - adult/resting
    • myofibroblasts - has actin filaments
  14. what is a fibroblast that contains actin filament
  15. structure/function of myofibroblasts (2)
    • actin filament
    • contraction during wound healing
  16. structure/function of reticular cells (2)
    • stellate-shaped, spherical nucleus, basophilic cytoplasm
    • makes reticular fibers
  17. what makes reticular fibers
    reticular cells
  18. types of adipocytes (2)
    • unilocular
    • multilocular
  19. structure of unilocular adipocytes
    filled with one big lipid droplet, nucleus on periphery
  20. what cell type has one big lipid droplet with the nucleus on the periphery
    unilocular adipocyte
  21. what is brown fat
    multilocular adipocyte
  22. structure of multilocular adipocyte
    central nucleus, multiple lipid droplets, high [] mitochondria
  23. whats the main differents in unilocular and multilocular adipocytes (2)
    • unilocular has one main lipid while multilocular has several small ones
    • unilocular's nucleus is on the side, multilocular has it's in the middle
  24. location of multilocular adipocytes (2)
    • hibernating animal
    • young babies
  25. location of pericytes
    adjacent to endothelium lining small blood vessels
  26. strucutre of pericytes (2)
    • elongated cell
    • contain actin and myosin
  27. function of pericytes (2)
    • potential to transform into other cells
    • participate in healing process
  28. cell types that deal with defence of the body (3)
    • mast cells
    • plasma cells
    • macrophage
  29. location of mast cells
    common in loose CT and abundant around blood vessels
  30. what is found in loose CT and abundant around blood vessels
    mast cells
  31. structure of mast cells
    large polymorphic, spherical/ovoid cells, contain lots of secretory granules
  32. stain of mast cells
    toluidine blue - granules=red (metachromic stain)
  33. function of mast cells
    produce heparin (anticoagulant) histamine (vasoconstrictor)
  34. what produces heparin and histamine
    mast cells
  35. what CT cells is found in loose CT and around blood vessels
    mast cells
  36. structure of plasma cells
    spherical or ovoid celsl w/ spherical eccentric nucleus. chromatin gives nucleus clockface/cartwheel appearance, cytoplasm intensely basophilic
  37. location of plasma cells (2)
    • lymphatic tissues
    • lamina propria of the GIT
  38. origin of plasma cells
    develop from B-lymophocytes
  39. function of plasma cells (3)
    • produce antibodies
    • neutralize/deactivate antigens
    • 1st step in dealing with antigens
  40. what cell is the 1st step in dealing with antigens
    plasma cells
  41. whats CT cells are found in lymphatic tissues and lamina propria of the GIT
    plasma cells
  42. what are phagocytic cells thats derived from monocytes
  43. origin of macrophage
  44. structure of macrophage
    large ovoid or spherical cells contain cytoplasmic vacuoles and nuberous lysosomes
  45. function of macrophage (2)
    • phagocytosis or eat antigens thats been deactivated by plasma cells
    • 2nd step in dealing with antigens
  46. what cell contains pigments (melanin)
    pigment cells
  47. what do pigment cells contain
    pigment (melanin)
  48. location of pigment cells (4)
    • dermis
    • uterine caruncles
    • choroid
    • iris
  49. examples of leucocytes (3)
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
    • granulocytes (blood cells)
  50. function of leucocytes
    migrate through the wall of capillaries to connective tissues
  51. types of CT fibers (3)
    • collagen fibers
    • reticular fibers
    • elastic fibers
  52. location of collagen fibers (3)
    • tendon
    • ligament
    • organ capsule
  53. what CT fiber is in tendon, ligament and organ capsule
    collagen fibers
  54. what CT fiber is strong and flexible but inelastic
    collagen fibers
  55. what CT fiber has wavy arrangement
    collagen fibers
  56. stain of collagen fibers
    fresh collagen fibers are white, Van Gieson's Method = red, and Mallory's and Masson's Trichrome stain = blue
  57. what stains red with Van Gieson's Method and blue with Mallory's and Masson's Trichrome stain
    collagen fibers
  58. structure of reticular fibers
    delicate, flexible networks, actually individual collagen fibrils coated with proteoglycans and glycoproteins
  59. what CT fibers are delicate, flexible networks of fibers thats actually individual collagen fibrils coated with proteoglycans and glycoproteins
    reticular fibers
  60. location of reticular fibers (3)
    • capillaries
    • muscle fibers
    • nerves
  61. what CT fibers are found around capillaries, in muscle fibers and nerves
    reticular fibers
  62. stain of reticular fibers (2)
    • silver impregnation (argyrophilic or argentaffin fibers)
    • PAS reagent
    • (will stain fibers black)
  63. what do you stain with silver impregnation or PAS reagent and turn black
    reticular fibers
  64. what is present in structures that require elasticity
    elastic fibers
  65. location of elastic fibers (5)
    • aorta
    • muscular arteries
    • nuchal ligament
    • pinna of ear
    • lungs
  66. composition of elastic fibers
    elastin protein, covered by glycoprotein (fibrillin)
  67. staining of elastic fibers (2)
    • H/E=light pink
    • orcein and resorcin-fuchsin=light pink (more selective)
  68. what is amorphous ground substance made up of (2)
    • (GAGs) glycosaminoglycans
    • proteoglycans
  69. what are the major types of glycosaminoglycans (4)
    • hyaluronic acid
    • chondrotin sulphate
    • dermatin sulphate
    • keratin sulphate
    • heparin sulphate
  70. how are proteoglycans formed
    by covalently linking GAGs to a protein core
  71. what GAG is in vitreous body of the eye and in synovial fluid
    hyaluronic acid
  72. what GAG is in cartilage, bone and large blood velssels
    chondroitin sulphate
  73. what GAG is intendons and ligaments
    dermatin sulphate
  74. what GAGT is in cartilage and bones
    keratin sulphate
  75. what GAG is in arteries and lungs
    heparin sulphate
  76. location of hyaluronic acid
    vitreous body of eye and in synovial fluid
  77. location of chondrotin sulphate
    cartilage, bone and large blood vessels
  78. location of dermatin sulphate
    tendons and ligaments
  79. location of keratin sulphate
    cartilage and bones
  80. location of heparin sulphate
    arteries and lungs