Musc Test 1

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skyesr2005
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63425
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Musc Test 1
Updated:
2011-02-01 12:45:21
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music
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music 318
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  1. the characteristic sounds of a particular place, both human and nonhuman
    soundscape
  2. the acoustic environment
    soundscape
  3. the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought
    culture
  4. subcategories of culture include:
    • religion
    • material
    • music
    • many more
  5. a human group's total involvement with music
    music culture
  6. what does music culture include?
    • ideas
    • actions
    • institutions
    • material objects
  7. everything that has to do with music
    music culture
  8. an art of sound in time that expresses ideas and emotions in significant forms through the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony, and form
    music
  9. sound that is humanly patterned or organized
    music
  10. Properties of musical sound include:
    • pitch
    • duration
    • timbre
    • volume
  11. found in all music cultures to coordinate complex tasks or for passing the time during less mentally demanding activities
    worksong
  12. worksongs used to coordinate complex tasks
    steady-beat
  13. worksongs used for passing the time during less mentally demanding activities
    non-steady beat
  14. length, or duration, of individual notes
    rhythm
  15. what does rhythm work with?
    meter and beat
  16. How long or short can notes be?
    • more than 1 beat long
    • less than 1 beat long
  17. deliberate disruption of regular patterns
    syncopation
  18. an accent is shifted to a weak beat or offbeat (in between the beats)
    syncopation
  19. patterns into which rhythmic pulses are organized into natural grouping of regular occurring beats into repeated patterns
    meter
  20. what are grouped beats?
    patterns of 2, 3, or 4
  21. what is considered to be the 1st beat?
    the strongest beat of group
  22. music with a single meter throughout
    monometer
  23. What category does most of our music fall?
    monometer
  24. music without a strong sense of beat or meter
    nonmetric
  25. irregular grouping of beats in a larger pattern
    additive meter
  26. example of additive meter
    9=2+2+2+3
  27. simultaneous use of different metric groupings
    polymeter
  28. the musical material that we tend to focus on
    melody
  29. the series of pitches that we can hum or whistle
    melody
  30. highness or lowness of a sound
    pitch
  31. how can pitch be measured scientifically?
    by using an oscilloscope (hertz)
  32. a unit of frequency equal to 1 cycle per second
    hertz
  33. uses the musical scal and a highness (sharp) or lowness (flat) indicator
    Tuner: most musicians have their own
  34. tone quality (or tone color) of a sound
    Timbre
  35. a natural sound consists of serveral pitches called ________________.
    overtones
  36. what gives a sound its particular tone color?
    the presence or obsense of overtones
  37. how is timbre measured?
    by using an oscilloscope
  38. length of the sound
    duration
  39. how can duration be measured scientifically?
    against the unit of the second
  40. the repeating pulses in music
    beats
  41. in music what is duration measured against?
    beats
  42. loudness or softness of a sound
    volume
  43. how can volume be measured scientifically?
    using a sound pressure or decibel meter
  44. that little something that can be added to the sound
    emphasis
  45. examples of emphasis
    • an accent
    • a delay of the rhythm
    • a moving around the pitch
  46. small push of additional volume
    an accent
  47. a way to emphasize a point in a melody in classical musical
    • ornaments
    • also called decorative tones
  48. collection of pitches arranged in ascending or descending order
    scale
  49. ________ or _________ are assigned to the tones of the scale.
    • syllables
    • numbers
  50. what is the scale?
    • do-re-mi-fa-sol-la-ti-do
    • 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8
  51. the interval from do-do or 1-8
    octave
  52. how can octave be measured?
    as a doubling of the cycles per second
  53. If you start out playing the note A at 440 cycles per second and then play the A one octave higher, what will the octave be?
    880 cycles per second
  54. that which is NOT melody (vertical aspect of music)
    harmony
  55. 3 or more tones sounded together
    chord
  56. a chord not sounding together
    arpeggio
  57. describes how melody and harmony interact in various musics
    texture
  58. single-voiced or musical line (either sung or instrumental)
    monophonic
  59. no harmonic accompaniment or countermelodies
    monophonic
  60. multiple voices (musical lines) elaborating the same melody at the same time
    heterophonic
  61. one main melodic line with accompanying parts
    homophony
  62. many-voiced texture based on counterpoint
    polyphony
  63. one musical line or melody set against another
    polyphony
  64. a sustained tone (or tones) in music often used to accompany melody
    Drone
  65. Where is drone most often found?
    in non-western cultures
  66. drones are built into some instruments such as _______.
    • bagpipes
    • hurdy-gurdy
    • sitar
  67. refers to the structure of a musical performance: the prinicples by which it is put together and how it works
    form
  68. new text or verse without any repeated text set to the same music
    strophic
  69. new text or verse for 1 section with an exact repitition of the text and music for another
    verse-refrain
  70. features a soloist, then a group response
    call and response
  71. a stock of music that is ready to be performed
    repertory
  72. repertory consists of:
    style, genres, texts, compositions, transmission and movement
  73. everything related to the organization of musical sound itself
    style
  74. style consists of:
    • pitch elements
    • time elements
    • timbre elements
    • sound intensity
  75. the named, standard untis of the repertory, such as "song" and its various subdivisions (lullaby, christmas carol, wedding song)
    genre
  76. the many types of instrumental music and dances (jig, reel, waltz)
    genre
  77. the words (or lyrics to a song)
    text
  78. bound up with social organizations
    related to ideas about music
    compostition
  79. the way music is learned from 1 person to the next
    transmission
  80. refers to the material objects that people in a culture produce objects that can be seen, held, felt, and used
    material culture of music
  81. the study of folk and primitive music and of their relationship to the peoples and cultures to which they belong
    ethnomusicology
  82. the belief that one's own culture is superior to all others and is the standard by which all other cultures should be measured
    ethnocentrism
  83. the process of learning one's own culture gradually during childhood
    enculturation
  84. the process of living and learning a new and different culture other than your own
    aculturation
  85. Scientific instruments categores:
    • aerophone
    • chordophone
    • idiophone
    • membranophone
  86. an instrument that uses a vibrating column of air
    aerophone
  87. example of an aerophone
    flute, clarinet, trumpet
  88. an instrument that uses a vibrating string
    chordophone
  89. example of a chordophone
    • guitar
    • violin
    • piano
  90. an instrument that vibrates itself
    idiophone
  91. example of an idiophone
    • bells
    • triange
    • xylophone
    • gong
  92. an instrument that uses a membrane that vibrates
    membranophone
  93. examples of a membranophone
    • bass drum
    • snare drum
    • tympani

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