Musc Test 1
Card Set Information
Musc Test 1
the characteristic sounds of a particular place, both human and nonhuman
the acoustic environment
the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought
subcategories of culture include:
a human group's total involvement with music
what does music culture include?
everything that has to do with music
an art of sound in time that expresses ideas and emotions in significant forms through the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony, and form
sound that is humanly patterned or organized
Properties of musical sound include:
found in all music cultures to coordinate complex tasks or for passing the time during less mentally demanding activities
worksongs used to coordinate complex tasks
worksongs used for passing the time during less mentally demanding activities
length, or duration, of individual notes
what does rhythm work with?
meter and beat
How long or short can notes be?
more than 1 beat long
less than 1 beat long
deliberate disruption of regular patterns
an accent is shifted to a weak beat or offbeat (in between the beats)
patterns into which rhythmic pulses are organized into natural grouping of regular occurring beats into repeated patterns
what are grouped beats?
patterns of 2, 3, or 4
what is considered to be the 1st beat?
the strongest beat of group
music with a single meter throughout
What category does most of our music fall?
music without a strong sense of beat or meter
irregular grouping of beats in a larger pattern
example of additive meter
simultaneous use of different metric groupings
the musical material that we tend to focus on
the series of pitches that we can hum or whistle
highness or lowness of a sound
how can pitch be measured scientifically?
by using an oscilloscope (hertz)
a unit of frequency equal to 1 cycle per second
uses the musical scal and a highness (sharp) or lowness (flat) indicator
Tuner: most musicians have their own
tone quality (or tone color) of a sound
a natural sound consists of serveral pitches called ________________.
what gives a sound its particular tone color?
the presence or obsense of overtones
how is timbre measured?
by using an oscilloscope
length of the sound
how can duration be measured scientifically?
against the unit of the second
the repeating pulses in music
in music what is duration measured against?
loudness or softness of a sound
how can volume be measured scientifically?
using a sound pressure or decibel meter
that little something that can be added to the sound
examples of emphasis
a delay of the rhythm
a moving around the pitch
small push of additional volume
a way to emphasize a point in a melody in classical musical
also called decorative tones
collection of pitches arranged in ascending or descending order
________ or _________ are assigned to the tones of the scale.
what is the scale?
the interval from do-do or 1-8
how can octave be measured?
as a doubling of the cycles per second
If you start out playing the note A at 440 cycles per second and then play the A one octave higher, what will the octave be?
880 cycles per second
that which is NOT melody (vertical aspect of music)
3 or more tones sounded together
a chord not sounding together
describes how melody and harmony interact in various musics
single-voiced or musical line (either sung or instrumental)
no harmonic accompaniment or countermelodies
multiple voices (musical lines) elaborating the same melody at the same time
one main melodic line with accompanying parts
many-voiced texture based on counterpoint
one musical line or melody set against another
a sustained tone (or tones) in music often used to accompany melody
Where is drone most often found?
in non-western cultures
drones are built into some instruments such as _______.
refers to the structure of a musical performance: the prinicples by which it is put together and how it works
new text or verse without any repeated text set to the same music
new text or verse for 1 section with an exact repitition of the text and music for another
features a soloist, then a group response
call and response
a stock of music that is ready to be performed
repertory consists of:
style, genres, texts, compositions, transmission and movement
everything related to the organization of musical sound itself
style consists of:
the named, standard untis of the repertory, such as "song" and its various subdivisions (lullaby, christmas carol, wedding song)
the many types of instrumental music and dances (jig, reel, waltz)
the words (or lyrics to a song)
bound up with social organizations
related to ideas about music
the way music is learned from 1 person to the next
refers to the material objects that people in a culture produce objects that can be seen, held, felt, and used
material culture of music
the study of folk and primitive music and of their relationship to the peoples and cultures to which they belong
the belief that one's own culture is superior to all others and is the standard by which all other cultures should be measured
the process of learning one's own culture gradually during childhood
the process of living and learning a new and different culture other than your own
Scientific instruments categores:
an instrument that uses a vibrating column of air
example of an aerophone
flute, clarinet, trumpet
an instrument that uses a vibrating string
example of a chordophone
an instrument that vibrates itself
example of an idiophone
an instrument that uses a membrane that vibrates
examples of a membranophone