Brady Ch 8 Part 2

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Brady Ch 8 Part 2
2010-02-08 14:24:01

Brady Ch 8 Part 2
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  1. Define afterload.
    The resistance the heart must overcome to eject blood.
  2. Define anemia.
    A hematologic disorder in which there is a reduction in circulating red blood cells.
  3. What is cardiac output?
    It is the amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute.

    (Stroke volume x heart rate)
  4. What is cholecystitis?
    An inflammation of the gallbladder and is usually caused by a gall stone that has created a blockage.
  5. What is a common endocrine disorder?
    Diabetes mellitus is the most common.
  6. What are three common immunological disorders?
    Rheumatic fever, allergies, and asthma.
  7. Describe compensated shock.
    An early stage of shock during which the bodies compensatory mechanisms are able to maintain normal perfusion.
  8. What is Chron's disease?
    An inflammation of the wall of the digestive tract usually affecting the intestines.
  9. What is a crystalloid solution?
    A solution that is capable of crystallization and can diffuse through a membrane, like a capillary wall.
  10. Describe decompensated shock.
    An advanced stage of shock when the bodies compensatory mechanisms can no longer maintain normal perfusion.
  11. Describe distributive shock.
    Caused by the abnormal distribution of and return of blood as a result of vasodilation, vasopermeability, or both. (neurogenic, anaphylatic, and septic)
  12. What is the Fick Principle?
    The five conditions for the movement and utilization of oxygen.

    • -Adequate concentration of inspired O2
    • -Appropriate movement of O2 across the aveolar/capillary membrane into the arterial bloodstream.
    • -Adequate number of red blood cells to carry the O2.
    • -Proper tissue perfusion.
    • -Effcient off-loading of O2 at the tissue level.
  13. What is the Frank-Starling mechanism?
    The greater the stretch of the ventricle (preload volume), up to a certain point, the greater the contraction.
  14. Define hemophillia.
    A bleeding disorder that is caused by a genetic clotting factor deficiency.
  15. Define homeostatis.
    The natual tendency of the body to maintain a steady and normal environment.
  16. What is Huntington's disease?
    A neuromuscular disease caused by a genetic defect that causes uncontrollable jerking movements.
  17. What is hypovolemia?
    When there is an insufficient amount of intravascular fluid for normal body funtioning.
  18. What is irreversable shock?
    The stage of shock in which no matter what is done death is inevitable.
  19. Define MODS.
    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    -The progressive impairment of two or more organ systems resulting from an uncontrolled inflammatory response to a severe illness or injury.
  20. When does MODS begin and how does it present at 24 hours time.
    Within the forst 24 hours of resucitation the patient will develop symptoms as follows:

    • -low grade fever
    • -tachycardia
    • -dyspnea
    • -altered mental status
    • -general hypermetabolic state/hyperdynamic state
  21. What is neurogenic shock?
    Shock resulting from a brain or spinal cord injury that causes an interuption of nerve impulses to the arteries with a loss of tone, dilation, and relative hypovolemia.
  22. Define perfusion.
    The supplying of oxygen and all nutrients to the body tissues as a result of the constant passage of blood through the capillaries.
  23. What is peripheral cascular resistance?
    The resistance of the vessels to flow blood. Increased as the vessels contract, decreased as they relax.
  24. Define preload.
    The amount of blood delivered to the heart during diastole, when the heart fills with blood between contractions, the tension of the cardiac muscle fiber at the end of diastole.
  25. What is schizophrenia?
    A psychiatric disorder affecting about 1% of the population in which the person looses contact with reality and suffers from hallucinations, delusions, abnormal thinking, and has disrupted social functioning.
  26. How many chromosomes does a human somatic cell have?
  27. What is the treatment for cardiogenic shock?
    Treat as any other type of shock assuring an open airway, administer oxygen, assist ventilations, and keep the patient warm. Start an IV but only run at TKO if pulmonary edemia is evident. Elevate the patients head and shoulders to keep fluid low in the lungs if present. Monitor heart rate and treat per local protocol.