Health Statistics Exam 1

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1. Statistics
Involves the techniques and procedures dealing with collection, organization, analyzing, interpretation, and presentatino of data
2. Three Components of Health Fields
• 1. Education- basic and applied knowledge
• 2. Clinical Practice- Deal with patient
• 3. Research- expand knowledge
3. Goal of Statistics in the Health Field
• Improve Health Profession
• Improve service
• Improve treatment and prevention of disease and disorders
4. Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics
• Descriptive- Use data to describe sample
• Inferential- Use sample data to make conclusions about the population
5. Causation vs. Assocation
• Causation- When on variable directly affects another
• Association- When two variables have a strong observed connection
6. Lurking Variable
A "hidden factor" that can influence other variables.
7. Tables
An orderly arrangement of values grouped in to rows and columns
8. Disadvantage of use of Tables
Since they are not very interesting, tables should be used sparingly
Displaying information related to several levels of a variable
10. Row vs. Column
• Row- across
• Column- down
11. Types of Tables
• One variable
• Two or more variable
12. Pie Chart
• Emphasizes each category's relation to the whole
• Chart must be incluse
• Useful for qualitative data
13. Bar (Column) Charts
• One-Variable
• Grouped (or two or more variable)
14. Stacked bar graph
Grouped bar chart in which the separate groups are colored coded and graphed together
15. Scatter diagram
A graphic technique used to display the relationship between to continuous variables.
16. Line graphs
Used to display trends
17. Ratio
Relationship between one quanitity to another. Numbers are expressed as a fraction or separated by a colon.
18. Proportion
Relationship between one quanitity and the whole
19. Percentage
Proportion x's 100
20. Frequency Table
View the distribution of data as it is sorted within each class
21. Class Interval
Which class has the lowest frequency
22. Array
Arrangement- order
23. Interval midpoint
What is the midpoint of that class
24. Class width
24-26, 24, 25, 26- 3 the number of classes within a class
25. Stem and Leaf Plot
• Construct by writing the first digits in the first column- stem.
• Write the second digits of all the numbers relating to each of the first digits- leaf
26. Histogram
Plot of the frequency distribution table
27. Frequency Polygon
Same as historgram, except connect midpoint of class to make continuous line
• Researcher designs and imposes treatments
• Best way to demonstrate causation
• Researcher has control over subjects
• Ethics
• Expense
• Factors being studied already exist
• Quickest and cheapest way to collect data
• More acceptable to conduct on humans
Less able to account for lurking variables
32. Subject
People bein gstudied, people we get data from. Represent population.
33. Treatment
Conditions we impose
34. Control
Status quo, normal or no treatment.
35. Placebo treatment
Subject is unaware they are not being treated
36. Sham procedure
Mimick a procedure
37. Single-blind study
Subject doesn't know what group they are in
38. Double-blind study
Neither the subject nor the researcher know treatment assignments
39. Clinical Trial
Experiment conducted on humans.
40. Why do a literature review?
• Interest in Topic
• Design project
• Background/rationale project introduction