sgu vet histo1 2-4

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Author:
onaktan
ID:
6347
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sgu vet histo1 2-4
Updated:
2010-02-08 14:57:10
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sgu vet hist1 2 4
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CT types
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  1. types of embryonic CT (2)
    • mesenchymal CT
    • mucous or gelatinous CT
  2. types of adult CT (5)
    • loose or areolar CT
    • dense CT
    • elastic CT
    • reticular CT
    • adipose CT
  3. special CT (2)
    • cartilage
    • bone
  4. what type of CT is mesenchymal CT
    embryonic CT
  5. what type of CT is mucous or gelatinous CT
    embryonic CT
  6. what type of CT is loose or areolar CT
    adult CT
  7. what type of CT is dense CT
    adult CT
  8. what type of CT is eleastic CT
    adult CT
  9. what type of CT is reticular CT
    adult CT
  10. what type of CT is adipose CT
    adult CT
  11. function of mesenchymal CT
    gives rise to various types of adult CT
  12. what gives rise to various types of adult CT
    mesenchymal CT
  13. type of cell mesenchymal CT is made of
    mesenchymal cells
  14. where is mucous or gelatinous CT found (4)
    • in umbilical cord in embryo
    • papillae of omasal laminae
    • reticular fold
    • bovine glans penis
  15. what CT type is found in umbilical cord of an embryo
    mucous or gelatinous CT
  16. consistancy of mucous or gelatinous CT (3)
    • fibroblast
    • gel like ground substance
    • collagen fibers
  17. location of loose or areolar CT (4)
    • beneath epithelium
    • around blood vessels
    • around nerves
    • serous membranes
  18. structure loose or areolar CT(3)
    • lots of ground substance
    • cells scattered and of various types
    • loose network of fine collagenous, reticular and elastic fibers
  19. composistion of dense CT (2)
    • thick collagenous fibers
    • few fibroblast cells
  20. types of dense CT (2)
    • dense irregular CT
    • dense regular
  21. location of dense irregular CT (2)
    • capsules of the organs
    • deep layer of the dermis
  22. location of dense regular CT (3)
    • tendons
    • ligaments
    • aponeurosis
  23. what is characterized by numerous regularly or irregularly arranged eleastic fibers
    elastic tissue
  24. structure of elastic tissue
    numberous reg or irreg arranged elastic fibers
  25. location of elastic tissue (2)
    • nuchal ligament
    • vocal ligament
  26. composed of numerous reticular cells and a network of reticular fibers
    reticular tissue
  27. composition of reticular tissue
    numerous reticular cells and network of reticular fibers
  28. location of reticular tissue (3)
    • (generally: endocrine system)
    • spleen
    • lymph node
    • liver
  29. what is found in loose CT of mesenteries, around blood vessels and nerves
    adipose tissue
  30. location of adipose tissue (3)
    • in loose CT of mesenteries
    • around blood vessels
    • nerves
  31. types of adipose tissues (2)
    • white adipose tissue
    • brown adipose tissue
  32. cartilage cells are called what (2)
    • chondroblasts
    • chondrocytes
  33. consistency of cartilage (3)
    • cartilage cells
    • matrix
    • no blood vessels
  34. oval-shaped w/ a spherical nucleus and basophilic cytoplam. cells form the matrix of the cartilage and are found in growing cartilage
    chondroblast
  35. define chondroblast (3)
    • struct/stain: oval-shaped w/ a spherical nucleus and basophilic cytoplam.
    • function: cells form the matrix of the cartilage
    • found: in growing cartilage
  36. located in cartilage's lacuna and has a spherical nucleus with basophilic cytoplasm.
    chondrocyte
  37. define chondrocyte (2)
    • location: lacuna of cartilage
    • struct/stain: spherical nucleus with basophilic cytoplasm
  38. composed of fibers and ground substance containing proteoglycans and certain GAGs
    cartilage matrix
  39. composistion of cartilage matrix (6)
    • fibers
    • proteoglycans
    • chondroitin sulphate
    • keratin sulphate
    • hyaluronic acid
    • adhesive molecules (chondronectin and fibronectin)
  40. types of cartilage (3)
    • hyaline cartilage
    • elastic cartilage
    • fibrocartilage
  41. location of hyaline cartilage
    articular surfaces of bones, nose and trachea
  42. location of elastic cartilage
    pina and epiglottis
  43. location of fibrocartilage
    intervertebral discs and menisci
  44. cartilage found in articular surfaces of the bones, nose and trachea
    hyaline cartilage
  45. cartilage found in pinna and epiglottis
    elastic cartilage
  46. cartilage found in intervertebral discs and menisci
    fibrocartilage
  47. define hyaline cartilage (4)
    • staining: chondrocytes have ground substance with dark stained territorial area and a lightly stained interterritorial matrix
    • chondrocytes can be in singles or clusters called isogenous groups
    • ground substance has type II collagen fibers
    • cartilage surrounded by perichondrium (outer fibrous layer collagen fibers and fibroblast) inner cellular or chondrogenic layer make of chondroblasts
  48. what is hyaline cartilage covered by
    perichondrium
  49. structure of perichondrium (2)
    • outer fibrous layer (collagen fibers and fibroblast)
    • inner cellular or chondrogenic layer (chondroblast)
  50. define elastic cartilage
    like hyaline but with more elastic fibers in ground substance
  51. define fibrocartilage (2)
    • prominent presence of type I collagen fibers in matrix
    • no distinct perichondrium
  52. what main thing that bones have that cartilage do not have
    blood supply which effects healing
  53. how do you remove the ossified part of bones to study it
    put in an acid to disolve the bones and leave cells
  54. how do you remove the organic part of bones to study it
    put in boiling water to remove organic part and leave ossified part
  55. types of bone cells (3)
    • osteoblast (bone forming cell)
    • osteocytes (nature bone cell)
    • osteoclast (bone eating/mod cell)
  56. function of osteoblast
    secretes osteoid which will be calcified by the deposition of calcium salts
  57. what secretes osteoid
    osteoblasts
  58. what are the mature bone cells called
    osteocytes
  59. what cell type modifies bones
    osteoclasts
  60. what do osteoclasts secrete
    aid and lysosomal emzymes for bone resorption
  61. what is a large multinucleatded cell located in areas of bone for resorption or remodeling
    osteoclast
  62. what does the bone matrix consist of (3)
    • organic matter: sulphated GAGs, glycoprotein and type I collagen fibers, coursing in a spiral direction.
    • inorganic matter: calcium/phosphorus abundant but bicarbonate, citrate, magnesium, potassium and sodium are also found.
    • The calcium and phosphorus form hydroxyapatite crystals deposited as slender needles within the collagen network.
  63. what is the outer and inner organic laters of the diaphyses (2)
    • periosteum - outside
    • endosteum - inside
  64. what does the endosteum consist of (3)
    • simple squamous cells
    • osteoblast
    • osteoclasts
  65. what does spongy bone consist of
    delicate bony plates and spincules that run in various directions
  66. consistancy of compact bone (3)
    • osteons (unit of bone) or haversian systems
    • outer and inner circumferential lamellae
    • interstitial lamellae
  67. structure of an osteon
    central canal (has blood vessels, nerves and loose CT) surrounded by concentric lamellae
  68. where are osteocytes found in bone
    in lacunae between lamellae
  69. what surrounds each osteon
    cementing substance
  70. what connects central canals in bone
    perforating canals
  71. what are the types of ossification and where are they done (2)
    • intramembranous ossification (skull bones but not the base of the skull)
    • intracartilaginous ossification (endochondral ossification) (appendicular skeleton, vertebral column and ondes of the base of the skull)
  72. what is laid down first before ossification occurs to repair bone
    hyaline cartilage
  73. what are the 4 steps in bone repair (5)
    • 1. osteogenic cells of the periosteum/endosteum proliferate
    • 2. cells nearest the rapair area form bony trabeculae
    • 3. cells away from repair area turn into chondroblasts and produce cartilage
    • 4. cartilage is replaced by bone
    • 5. osteoclasts come in and clean up repair area

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