psychology chapter 8

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psychology chapter 8
2011-02-01 17:49:44
psychology chapter

psychology vocabulary chapter 8
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  1. cognitive process
    one of the higher mental processes, such as perception, memory, language, problem solving, and abstract thinking
  2. cognition
    process of knowing, including attending, remembering, and reasoning; also the content of processes, such as concepts and memories
  3. cognitive psychology`
    the study of higher mental processes such as attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, and thinking
  4. cognitive science
    the interdisciplinary field of study of the approach systems and processes that manipulate information
  5. serial processes
    two or more mental processes that are carried out in order, one after the other
  6. parallel processes
    two or more mental processes that are carried out stimultaneously
  7. controlled process
    process that requires attention; it is often difficult to carry out more than one controlled process at a time
  8. automatic process
    process that does not require attention; it can often be performed along with other tasks without interference
  9. language production
    what people say, sign, and write, as well as processes they go through to produce these messages
  10. audience design
    the process of shaping a message depending on the audience for which it is intended
  11. inference
    missing information filled in on the basis of a sample of evidence or on the basis f prior beliefs and theories
  12. linguistic relativity
    the hypothesis that the structure of the language an individual speaks has an impact on the way in which that individual thinks about the world
  13. problem solving
    thinking that i directed toward solving specific problems and that moves from an initial state to a goal state by means of a set of mental operations`
  14. reasoning
    the process of thinking in which conclusions are drawn from a set of facts; thinking directed toward a given goal or objective
  15. problem space
    the elements that make up a problem: the initial state, the incomplete information or unsatisfactory conditions the person starts with; the goal state the set of information or state the person wishes to achieve; and the set of operations, the steps the person takes to move from the initial state to the goal state
  16. algorithm
    a step by step procedure that always provides the right answer for a particular type of problem
  17. heuristic
    cognitive strategies, or "rules of thumb," often used as shortcuts in solving a complex inferential task
  18. think-aloud protocol
    report made by an experimental participant of the mental processes and strategies he or she uses while working on a task
  19. functional fixedness
    an inability to perceive a new use for an object previously associated with some other purpose; adversely affects problem solving and creativity
  20. deductive reasoning
    a form of thinking in which one draws a conclusion that is intended to follow logically from two or more statements or premises
  21. belief-bias effect
    a situation that occurs when a persons prior knowledge, attitudes, or values distort the reasoning process by influencing the person to accept invalid arguments`
  22. inductive reasoning
    a form of reasoning in which a conclusion is made about the probability of some state of affairs, based on the available evidence and past experience
  23. mental set
    the tendency to respond to a new problem in the manner used to respond to a previous problem
  24. judgement
    the process by which people form opinions, reach conclusions, and make critical evaluations of events and people based on available material; also,the product of the mental activity
  25. decision making
    the process of choosing between alternatives; selecting or rejecting available options
  26. availability heuristic
    a judgement based on the information readily available in memory
  27. representativeness heuristic
    a cognitive strategy that assigns an object to a category on the basis of a few characteristics regarded as representative of that category
  28. anchoring heuristic
    an insufficient adjustment up or down from an original starting value when judging the probable value of some event or outcome
  29. frame
    a particular description of choice; the perspective from which a choice is described or framed affects how a decision is made and which option is ultimately exercised