psychology chapter 9

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ttttturtle
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psychology chapter 9
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2011-02-02 02:14:36
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psychology vocabulary chapter 9
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  1. psychological assement
    the use of specified procedures to evaluate the abilities, behaviors, and personal qualities of people
  2. formal assesment
    the systematic procedures and measurement instruments used by trained professionals to assess an individuals functioning, aptitudes, abilities, or mental states
  3. test-retest reliability
    a measure of correlation between scores of the same people on the same test given on two different occasions
  4. parallel forms
    different versions of a test used to assess test reliability; the change of forms reduces effects of direct practice, memory, or the desire of an individual to appear consistent on the same items
  5. internal consistency
    a measure of reliability; the degree to which a test yields similar scores across its different parts, such as odd versus even items
  6. split-half reliability
    a measure of the correlation between test takers' performance on different halves (such as odd- and even-numbered) of a test
  7. content validity
    the extent to which a test adequately measures the full range of the domain of interest
  8. criterion validity
    the degree to which test scores indicate a result on a specific measure that is consistent with some other criterion of the characteristic being assessed; also known as predictive validity
  9. predictive validity
    the degree to which test scores indicate a result on a specific measure that is consistent with some other criterion of the characteristic being assessed; also known as criterion validity
  10. construct validity
    the degree to which a taste adequately measures an underlying construct
  11. norm
    standard based on measurement of a large group of people; used for comparing the scores of an individual with those of others within a well-defined group
  12. standardization
    a set of uniform procedures for treating each participant in a test, interview, or experiment, or for recording data
  13. intelligence
    the global capacity to profit from experience and to go beyond given information about the environment
  14. mental age
    in Binet's measure of intelligence, the age at which a child is performing intellectually, expressed in terms of the average age at which normal children achieve a particular score
  15. chronological age
    the number of months or years since an individuals birth
  16. intelligence quotient (IQ)
    an index derived from standardization tests of intelligence; originally obtained by dividing an individual's mental age by chronological age and then multiplying by 100; now directly computed as an IQ test score
  17. intellectual disability
    condition in which individuals have IQ scores of 70 or 75 or below and also demonstrate limitations in the ability to bring adaptive skills to bear on life tasks
  18. learning disorder
    a disorder defined by a large discrepancy between individuals' measured IQ and their actual performance
  19. psychometrics
    the field of psychology that specializes in mental testing
  20. g
    according to Spearman, the factor of general intelligence underlying all intelligent performance
  21. crystallized intelligence
    the facet of intelligence involving the knowledge a person has already acquired and the ability to access that knowledge; measures by vocabulary, arithmetic, and general information tests
  22. fluid intelligence
    the aspect of intelligence that involves the ability to see complex relationships and solve problems
  23. emotional intelligence
    type of intelligence defined as the abilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotions accurately and appropriately, to use emotions to facilitate thinking, to understand and analyze emotions, to use emotional knowledge effectively, and to regulate one's emotions to promote both emotional and intellectual growth
  24. heritability estimate
    a statistical estimate of the degree or inheritance of a given trait or behavior, assessed by the degree of similarity between individuals who vary in their extent of genetic similarity
  25. stereotype threat
    the threat associated with being at risk confirming a negative stereotype of one's group
  26. creativity
    the ability to generate ideas or products that are both novel and appropriate to the circumstances
  27. divergent thinking
    an aspect of creativity characterized by an ability to produce unusual but appropriate responses to problems
  28. convergent thinking
    an aspect of creativity characterized by the ability to gather together different sources of information to solve a problem
  29. insight
    circumstances of problem solving in which solutions suddenly come to mind

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