CH 1 Flashcards - EXAM 1.txt

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CH 1 Flashcards - EXAM 1.txt
2011-02-01 19:07:56


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  1. Chapter 1
  2. Microbiology
    • the study of microorganisms and viruses
    • branches w/in this are
    • 1. bacteriology
    • 2. virology
    • 3. mycology (study of fungus)
  3. Scientific Method
    • Involves a series of steps involved in research which have led and continue to lead us to more knowledge. These steps include
    • 1. asking a question
    • 2. formulating a hypothesis based on observations
    • 3. gathering tools/designing experiments
    • 4. analyzing data
    • 5. proving or disproving hypothesis
  4. Robert Hooke
    • Developed Cell Theory & invented 1st microscope
    • 1st person to observe microbes under microscope
    • Saw fungi & plant cell structure
  5. Cell Theory
    • All organisms composed of cells
    • All organisms are either unicellular or multicellular
    • All organisms are fundamentally alike with regard to their structure and metabolism
    • Cells ONLY arise from PREViOUSLY EXISTING cells
  6. Koch's Postulates
    • Steps in isolating the disease causing agent
    • 1. Isolate agent from disease victim.
    • 2. grow agent in PURE CULTURE.
    • 3. Infect a healthy host & show the organism produces the disease (to prove previous steps)
    • 4. Isolate the SAME organism from the new victim.
    • Now DNA sequencing is used to help isolate
  7. Anton van Leeuwenhoek
    • 1st person to observe bacteria
    • made microscopes
    • also viewed algae, protozoa and large bacteria (he called them animal beasties)
  8. Ignaz Semmelwies
    • applied the rule that medical students and other staff must WASH HANDS prior to working with patients
    • observed women dying of bed fever after child birth due to this lack of sanitation (noticed it not occurring if in midwives ward, only doctor's ward)
  9. F. Redi
    • DISPROVED Spontaneous generation theory
    • used jar of meat, produced maggots only if flies able to land on it, not when covered (with a lid or with mesh to allow air flow)
  10. Louis Pasteur
    • Father of Microbiology
    • Designed Pasteurization technique - used on wine and milk
    • devloped vaccines (rabies)
    • made germ theory of disease
  11. Robert Koch
    • Isolated bacteria causing anthrax and cholera
    • laid foundations for sterile technique for microbio
    • involved with Pasteur's germ theory
  12. Fanny Angelina Eilshemius
    developed agar, which helped ppl study bacteria
  13. agar characteristics
    • solid at 45degrees
    • non-toxic
    • stable to sterilization temps
    • physiologically inert - bacteria can't break it down
  14. Edward Jenner
    • developed SMALL POX vaccine
    • used cow pox to immunize by infecting ppl with it and then they had immunity against small pox
  15. Microbes
    • oldest forms of life on earth
    • evolved into all niches on earth
    • SIZE is their common factor, they are diverse in metabolism, physiology, genetics & appearance
  16. Groups of microbes
    • 1. bacteria
    • 2. algae
    • 3. fungi
    • 4. viruses
    • 5. protozoa
  17. Pathogens
    disease causing microorganisms
  18. Nonpathogens
    can be useful (ie normal flora - live in our mouth, skin, digestive tract)
  19. antibiotics
    Do NOT differentiate between normal flora and pathogens, kill BOTH
  20. probiotics
    living culture of normal flora to help restore normal flora levels
  21. Useful microbes
    • decomposers: breakdown a wide array of products
    • biochemical cycles: help return elements back to natural state for reuse (ie O2 production, N2 and CO2 fixation)
    • bioremediation: Bacteria used to degrade environmental pollutants such as DDT (also in oil spill cleanups)
  22. Examples of useful microbes and industry involved
    • Pharmaceutical industry: use microbes to develop new antibiotics, as microbes are becoming resistant to old strains of antibiotics. Also insulin is an example
    • Biotechnology: use recombinant DNA technology to produce human insulin, which can be treated for patients with diabetes
  23. Factors responsible for emerging outbreaks
    • 1. world population growth
    • 2. urbanization
    • 3. ecological disturbances
    • 4. technological advances
    • 5. microbial evolution and adaptation
    • 6. human behavior and attitude
    • 7. societal factors
  24. world population growth
    can increase person to person transmission, also hunger and malnutrition increase w/growth of pop
  25. urbanization
    sanitation issues can spread microbes, and urban centers act as microbe magnets b/c of overcrowding
  26. ecological disturbances
    • climate change: can give rise to certain pathogens
    • deforestation: interact with new microbes in forest
    • natural disasters: Haiti earthquake resulted in cholera outbreak
  27. technological advances
    globalization increases travel and rate at which disease can spread
  28. microbial evolution and adaptation
    • drug resistance in developed nations
    • Microbes change their surface structure to help escape immune system
  29. human behavior and attitude
    • migration
    • complacency: not taking full doses of antibiotic treatment, gives rise to potential mutations forming in pathogens that have a developed resistance (ie: TB is becoming resistant to antibiotics)
  30. societal factors
    • eating processed food
    • tattoos
    • eating out
  31. Microbial Infections
    • 1. food-borne & water-borne: typhoid & cholera
    • 2. airborne: influenza
    • 3. Sexually transmitted
  32. Microorganism 3 divisions
    • Bacteria
    • Eurcarya: include algae, fungi, protozoa
    • Archaea: same as bac but NO peptidoglycan layer in cell wall
  33. Bacteria
    • only prokaryotes
    • unicellular
    • reproduce by BINARY FISSION (DNA completely identically replicated)
    • Heterotroph (get nutrients from other places) or autotrophs (make their own nutrients and carbon)
    • shapes are rod (bacilli), sphere (cocci) and spiral
  34. Fungi
    • Is a eukaryote, has 2 groups
    • 1. yeast (unicellular)
    • 2. molds (multicellular)
  35. Protozoa
    • Is a eukaryote, unicellular
    • ie amoebas, can cause amoebic dissentary
  36. Algae
    • Is a eukaryote, plant-like
    • asexual and sexual reproduction
    • provide oxygen to aquatic life
  37. Viruses
    • NOT true organisms
    • contain EITHER DNA or RNA
    • can infect almost all types of cells
  38. Viroids
    • more simple than virus, contain ONLY RNA
    • no protective protein coat
  39. Prions
    • contain ONLY Proteins
    • no nucleic acids
    • ie mad cow disease