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what is the order for doing a physical exam?
inspect, palpate, percuss, auscultation
what are the layers of skin?
epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous layer
what is the epidermis?
outer most later of the skin
derivation of skin color
what is the dermis?
middle layer of skin
connective or collagen tissue
what is the subcutaneous later?
bottom/inner most later of skin
the fat layer
what are the epidermal appendages?
hair, sebaceous glands, sweat glands (eccrine and apocrine glands), nails
what are the functions of skin?
protection (elements, chemical, light, heat), penetration, perception, temperature regulation, identification, communication, wound repair, absorption/excretion (sweating), Vit. D production (CHO converted to Vit. D)
What are some health history questions one can ask about the skin (subjective data)?
history of skin disease (allergies, hives, psoriasis, eczema), change in mole/pigmentation (size, color), excessive dryness/moisture, pruritus (itching), excessive bruising/sores that don't heal, any medications being taken, alopecia (hair loss), change in nails, environment/occupational hazards, self-care behaviors
what are some physical exam (objective) data?
inspect/palpate, color, freckles, mole (nevus/nevi), birthmark
what is pallor?
pale, deficient in hemoglobin
red tones of oxygenated hemoglobiruis lost
what is erythema?
intense redness due to excess blood
what is cyanosis?
bluish hue, decreased perfusion to tissues
what is jaundice?
yellow color, rising amounts of bilirubin in blood stream
seen in whites of the eye first
what is hypothermia?
low body temperature below 94.6 degrees F
what is hyperthermia?
elevated body temperature about 99.1 degrees F
what is febrile?
fever (temperature >99.1 degree F)
what is afebrile?
normal temperature (96.4-99.1 degree F)