Chapter 8 Bio Vocab

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Chapter 8 Bio Vocab
2011-02-01 22:11:44

Chapter 8 Bio Vocab
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  1. Chromosome
    in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA
  2. Histonea
    type of protein molecule found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells
  3. Chromatinthe
    material that makes up both mitotic and interphase chromosomes a complex of proteins and DNA strands that are loosely coiled such that translation and transcription can occur
  4. centromerethe
    region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis
  5. chromatinthe
    material that makes up both mitotic and interphase chromosomes' a complex of proteins and DNA strands that are loosely coiled such that translation and transcription can occur
  6. chromatid
    one of the two strands of a chromosome that become visible during meiosis or mitosis
  7. sex chromosomes
    one of the pairs of chromosomes that determines the sex of an individual
  8. autosome
    any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
  9. homologous chromosomes
    chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure and that pair during meiosis
  10. karyotype
    a micrograph of the array of chromosomes visible in a cell during metaphase; a graphical display that shows an individual’s chromosomes arranged in homologous pairs and in order of diminishing size
  11. diploid
    a cell that contains two haploid sets of chromosomes
  12. haploid
    describes a cell, nucleus or organism that has only one set of unpaired chromosomes
  13. binary fission
    a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
  14. mitosis
    in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
  15. asexual reproduction
    reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to parents
  16. Meiosis
    a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells
  17. gamete
    a haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote
  18. interphase
    a period between two miotic or meitoic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins
  19. cytokinesis
    the division of the cytolasma of a cell cytokinesis follows the division of the cells nucleus by mitosis or meiosis
  20. prophase
    the first stage of mitosis and meiosis in cell division; characterized by the condensation of the chromosomes and the dissolution of the nuclear envelope
  21. spindle fiber
    one of the microtubles that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell assists in the movement of chromosomes
  22. Metaphase
    one of the stages of mitosis and meiosis during which all the chromosomes move to the cell's equator
  23. anaphase
    a phase of mitosis and meiosis in which the chromosomes separate
  24. telophase
    the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes
  25. cell plate
    the precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell in 2
  26. synapsis
    the pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
  27. tetrad
    the four chromatids in a pair of homologous chromosomes that come together as a result of synapsis during meiosis
  28. crossing over
    the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis; can result in genetic recombination
  29. genetic recombination
    the regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents
  30. independant assortment
    the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes
  31. spermatogenesis
    the process by which male gametes form
  32. oogensis
    the production, growth and maturation of an egg or ovum
  33. polar body
    short lived product of the formation of gametes by meiosis