Psychology 1 & 6

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Psychology 1 & 6
2011-02-06 22:25:15

chapters 1.1, 1.2, and 1.6
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  1. physiological
    having to do with an organisim's physical processes
  2. cognitive
    having to do with an organism's thinking and understanding
  3. psychology
    the scientific study of behavior that is tested through scientific research
  4. hypothesis
    an assumption or prediction about behavior that is tested through scientific research
  5. theory
    a set of assumptions used to explain phenomena and offered for scientific study
  6. basic science
    the pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomena for its own sake
  7. applied science
    discovering ways to use scientific findings to accomplish practical goals
  8. scientific method
    a general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized
  9. structuralist
    a psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences
  10. introspection
    a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughs amd feelings
  11. functionalist
    a psychologist who studied the function (rather than the structure) of consciousness
  12. psychoanalyst
    a psychologist who studies who unconcious motives and conflicts determine human behavior, feelings, and thoughts
  13. behaviorist
    a psychologist who analyzes how organisms learn or modify their behavior based on their response to events in the environment
  14. humanist
    a psychologist who believes that each person has freedom in directing his or her future and acheiving personal growth
  15. cognitivist
    a psychologist who studies how we preocess, store, retrieve, and use information and how thought processes influence our behavior
  16. psychobiologist
    a pschologist who studies how physical and chemical changes in our bodies influence our behavior
  17. central nervous system (CNS)
    the brain and spinal cord
  18. spinal cord
    nerves that run up and down the length of the back and transmit most messages between the body and brain
  19. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    nerves branching beyond the spinal cord into the body
  20. neurons
    the long, thin cells of nerve tissue along which messages travel to and from the brain
  21. synapse
    the gap that exists between individual nerve cells
  22. neurotransmitters
    the chemical released by neurons, which determine the rate at which other neurons fire
  23. somatic nervous system (SNS)
    the part of th e peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscles
  24. autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls internal biological functions
  25. hindbrain
    a part of the brain located at the rear base of the skull that is involved in the basic process of life
  26. midbrain
    a small part if the brain above the pons that arouses the brain, integrates sensory information, and relays it upward
  27. forebrain
    a part of the brain that covers the brain's central core, responsible for sensory and motor control and the processing of thinking and language
  28. lobes
    the differemt regions into which the cerebral cortex is divided
  29. electroencephalograph (EEG)
    a amchine usd to record the electrical activity of large portions of the brain
  30. computerized axial tomography (CT)
    an imaging technique used to study the brain to pinpoint injuries and brain deterioration
  31. positron emission tomography (PET)
    an imaging technique used to see which brain areas are being activated while performing tasks
  32. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    a measuring technique used to study brain structure and activity
  33. endocrine system
    a chemical communication system, using hormones, by which messages are sent through the bloodstream
  34. hormones
    chemical substances that carry messages through the body in the blood
  35. pituitary gland
    the center of control of the endocrine system that secretes a large number of hormones
  36. heredity
    the genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to their offspring
  37. indentical twins
    twins who come from one fertilized egg; twins having the same heredity
  38. genes
    the basic building blocks of heredity
  39. fraternal twins
    twins who come from two different eggs fertilized by two different sperm
  40. goals of psychology
    • description
    • explanation- hypothesis & theory
    • prediction
    • influence
  41. father of psychology
    wilhelm wundt
  42. structuralism
    • wilhelm wundt
    • basic elements of human experience
    • introspection- looking at one's own thoughts -> scientific method
  43. functionalism
    • william james
    • how animals and people adapt to their environments
    • what is the function of all processes
  44. inheritable traits
    • sir francis galton
    • believed that greatness was inheritable
  45. gestalt
    • german psychologists
    • perception is more than the sum of its parts (raw egg=ew. cake=yum.)
    • looks at how the mind works
  46. psychoanalytic
    • sigmund freud
    • unconcious mind- free association & dream analysis
  47. behavioral
    • ivan pavlov (dogs)
    • conditioning led to response towards stimulusbased on prior experiences
  48. humanistic
    • maslow, rogers, and may
    • human nature is evolving and self-directed
    • environment & experience is only background to instincts
  49. cognitive
    • praget, chomsky, & festinger
    • focus on how we process, store, retrieve, and use information
    • how information influences our thinking, language, problem solving, & creativity
    • behavior is influenced by mental processes rather than stimuli
  50. biological
    how the brain, nervous system, hormones, and genetics influence behavior
  51. sociocultural
    culture & ethnicity has impact on behavior
  52. 1st contemporary psychologist
    sigmund freud
  53. 2 parts of the nervous system
    • cental nervous system
    • peripheral nervous system
  54. 4 parts of neurons
    • dendrites
    • axon
    • axon terminals
    • myelin sheath
  55. dendrites
    recieve impulses and send the to cell body
  56. axon
    carries impulse from cell body towards terminals
  57. axon terminals
    realease neurotransmitters
  58. myelin sheath
    insulates and protects axons
  59. 2 parts of ANS
    • sympathetic- prepares body for dealing with emergenciesand strenuous activity
    • parasympathetic- works to conserve energy and to enhance the body's ability to recover from strenuous activity
  60. parts of the hindbrain
    • cerebellum-posture, balance, voluntary movement
    • medulla-breathing, heart rate, and reflexes
    • pons- produces chemicals the body needs for sleep
  61. parts of the forebrain
    • thalamus-relay station
    • hypothalamus-hunger, thirst, temperature
    • cerebral cortex-ability to learn and stor complex and abstract information. See, read, and unterstand
  62. limbic system
    • regulates emotions and motivations
    • hypothalamus
    • amygadala (angry)
    • thalamus
    • hippocampus (memory)
  63. 5 lobes of the brain
    • corpus callosum
    • occipital lobe
    • parietal lobe
    • temporal lobe
    • frontal lobe
  64. corpus callosum
    connects the right and left hemispheres
  65. occipital lobe
  66. parietal lobe
    senses all over the body
  67. temporal lobe
    hearing, memory, emotion, and speaking
  68. frontal lobe
    organization, planning, and creative thinking
  69. the more intricate something in the body is...
    the more brain are that is used to control it
  70. left hemisphere
    speech, math, calculations, and logic
  71. right hemisphere
    visual, spatial, creativity, and intuition
  72. split-brain operations
    • control seizures
    • helps psychologists to better understand what side of the brain is responsible for activites
  73. stimulation
    neurosurgeons can stimulate different parts of the brain to isolate different functions
  74. leisons
    scientists will cut animal brains and see how they react
  75. accidents
    • depending on the damage sustained, doctors can make certain interferences
    • phineas gage
  76. 4 major glands
    • pituitary-secretes hormones that impact our other endocrine glands
    • thyroid-produces thyroxine. stimulates certain chemical reactions important for tissues
    • adrenal-stimulated during emergencies.
  77. adrenaline
    • epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • heart beat and breathing increase
    • heighten emotions
    • healp generate/release energy
  78. difference between hormones and neutransmitters
    • neurotransmitters-chemicals released next to the cell it is designed to excite or inhibit (nervous system)
    • hormones-released into the blood stream to travel
  79. nature vs nurture
    • sir francis galton vs. john watson
    • heredity- instincts vs. environment- experiences