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2010-02-09 00:55:19
McVey Neuroanatomy

Blood Supply to the CNS, McVey
Show Answers:

  1. The primary source of blood supply to brainstem is
    the vertebral artery
  2. A blockage in the left MCA means sensory deficits on which side of body
    right side (MCA -- contralateral side)
  3. A blockage in the Middle Cerebral Artery would mean more serious deficits in which part of body? -- Upper or Lower?
    Upper Body
  4. The MCA supplies the cortical areas above and below which landmark
    Lateral fissure
  5. The common carotid artery bifurcates into
    • External Carotid Artery
    • Internal Carotid Artery
  6. The Internal Carotid Artery enters the skull where it gives rise to
    • The Opthalmic Artery
    • The Anterior Choroidal Artery
    • Posterior Communicating Artery

    then bifurcates into the ACA and MCA
  7. Branches off the ACA are given off distal to the
    Anterior Communicating Artery
  8. Occlusion of the MCA results in
    • 1. Contralateral paralysis in the lower part of face and UPPER EXTREMITY
    • 2. Loss of sensation to UPPER EXTREMITY
    • 3. Hemianopsia of the Contralateral Visual Fields of Both Eyes
    • 4. Aphasia (if in dominant hemisphere) --can be expressive or receptive or a COMBO
    • ***5. Auditory Cortex is in the area supplied by MCA but probably not a significant loss of hearing due to bilateral projection
  9. The External Carotid Artery gives rise to
    Numerous Branches Supplying the Face and Neck
  10. Which is the most direct continuation of the Internal Carotid Artery
    the MCA
  11. What lies just above the corpus callosum in the depths of the Longitudinal Fissue
    the ACA
  12. What is located deep within the lateral fissure between the frontal/parietal/temoral lobes
    the MCA
  13. Which segment of the MCA supplies the cortex of frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes
  14. Which is larger, the ACA or MCA
  15. Which segment of the MCA supplies the insular cortex?
  16. Which segment of the MCA gives off arteries to basal ganglia
  17. Which artery supplies the INFERIOR LATERAL surfaces of the frontal/parietal/and superior temporal lobe?
  18. Occlusion of the ACA may cause these deficits
    • 1 - Paralysis in contralateral Lower Extremity
    • 2 - Sensory deficits in contralateral Lower Extremity
    • 3 - Urinary Incontinence
    • 4 - Ipsilateral Anosmia (smell)
    • 5 - Mental Confusion (difficulty with divergent thinking)
  19. Why would ACA occlusion affect the LOWER EXTREMITY?
    Because of how Homunculus is situated; The UPPER EXTREMITY is more in the Parietal Region (and the ACA only supplies a small portion of this region)
  20. A blockage in the right ACA would produce more serious deficits in which half of the body? -Upper or Lower
    ACA - lower body
  21. The Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) divides into
    Superior and Inferior Branches
  22. Which segment of MCA supplies the inner aspect of the opercula
  23. Which artery supplies the SUPERIOR LATERAL surface of the frontal and parietal lobes
    the ACA
  24. Blockage in the right ACA means sensory deficits on which side of the body
    left side
  25. Which artery supplies the MEDIAL surface of the frontal and parietal lobes
  26. Which artery supplies parts of the basal ganglia and the corpus callosum
  27. Which parts of the brain does the vertebral artery supply
    medulla, and parts of the cerebellum, and spinal cord via several branches
  28. Name the branches of the Vertebral Artery
    • PICA
    • PSAs (usually a branch of PICA, though)
    • Anterior Spinal Artery (just one)
  29. From where is the Anterior Spinal Artery formed
    It is formed by a contribution from both vertebral arteries
  30. What is the largest branch of the Vertebral Artery
  31. What does PICA supply
    the inferior medial part of the cerebellum
  32. What artery is formed by the joining of the two vertebral arteries
    the basilar artery
  33. Where is the basilar artery located?
    along the median depression on the anterior basilar pons
  34. Name the branches of the basilar artery
    • AICA
    • the Pontine Branches
    • -Paramedian
    • -Short and Long Circumferential Branches to the Pons
    • Superior Cerebellar Artery
    • PCAs
  35. At which point does the basilar artery bifurcate into the paired PCAs
    junction of pons and midbrain
  36. What does the PCA supply (in general)
    the posterior region of the brain including the midbrain and thalamus
  37. The Posterior Communicating Arteries connect the PCAs to the __________________
    The Anterior Communicating Arteries connect the ACAs to _______________
    • Internal Carotid Artery
    • each other
  38. What part of the cerebral cortex does the PCA supply
    • VENTRAL and MEDIAL surfaces of Temporal Lobe
    • VENTRAL and MEDIAL and LATERAL surfaces of the Occipital Lobe
  39. Which segment of PCA gives off temporal branches
  40. Which segment of the PCA goes from the posterior communicating artery to temporal area
  41. The P4 segment of the PCA gives off which two branches
    • parieto-occipital branches
    • calcarine branches
  42. Why is the Calcarine Branch of P4 so important?
    it supplies the PRIMARY VISUAL CORTEX and some of the Association Visual Cortex
  43. How far forward does the PCA extend?
    The parieto-occipital sulcus
  44. Occlusion of the PCA results in
    • -Homonymous Hemianopsia - Blindness in the Contralateral fields of vision in both eyes
    • -Memory Disturbances as a result of damage to the hippocampal region (usually recovers since the lesion must be bilateral to cause lasting effects on memory)
  45. What is the most common artery involved in strokes
  46. The circle of Willis passes around the ______ and _______ and crosses the ______________________.
    • optic chiasm and optic tract
    • cerebral peduncles of the midbrain
  47. Name the vessels of the circle are:
    • 1 - ACA and the Anterior Communicating Artery
    • Small part of the internal carotid artery
    • 2 - Posterior Communicating Arteries
    • 3 - PCA
    • Numerous perforating branches are given off to supply deep structures
  48. The spinal cord receives its blood supply from two different arteries
    • the ASA
    • the PSAs (supply the axons that form the post. columns)
  49. The ASA is located in the __________________ and supplies the _________________.
    The paired PSA is located in the ____________________ and supplies the _____________________.
    • ASA: anterior median fissure and supplies anterior 2/3 of spinal cord
    • PSA: posterolateral sulcus and supplies the posterior 1/3 of spinal cord
  50. The spinal veins in the spinal cord form an internal venous plexus where?
    The internal venous plexus communicates with an external venous plexus located where?
    • Inside the confines of Dura
    • Extradural Fat (between Dural Sac & Vertebrae)
  51. A source of metastatic disease reaching the vertebrae and brain can be found in
    the venous plexus (it has no valves and blood can flow in either direction)
  52. In Venous Drainage of the Brain, where are the external veins located
    subarachnoid space on all surfaces of the hemispheres
  53. Which veins drain the core of the cerebrum?
    Internal Veins
  54. Blood from external and internal veins empty into
    the dural sinuses
  55. Name the 8 Major Dural Sinuses
    • 1 - Superior Sagittal Sinus
    • 2 - Inferior Sagittal Sinus
    • 3 - Straight Sinus
    • 4 - Transverse Sinus
    • 5 - The Confluence of Sinuses
    • 6 - The sigmoid Sinus
    • 7 - The Cavernous Sinues
    • 8 - small occipital sinus in the falx cerebri
  56. What forms the confluence of sinuses
    the junction of the straight sinus (SS) and the paired sinus (PS) and the superior sagital sinus (SSS)
  57. Which sinus is located lateral to the pitutitary gland and hypophyseal stalk
    cavernous sinus
  58. The Superior Sagittal Sinus and Inferior Sagittal Sinus border the edges of the __________
    falx cerebri
  59. The Straight Sinus is at the junction of what
    The Falx Cerebri and the Tentorium Cerebelli