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occurs when the speaker/writer uses a word with more than one meaning TWICE in an argument, but does not use the word consistently.
*Look for repeated terms
occurs when a term with more than one meaning is used ONCE!
*listener is unable to decipher the meaning because there hasn't been sufficient context provided.
*Could be interpreted in more than one way.
occurs when there is a problem with grammatical construction of a particular proposition.
*The way the words are strung together creates a problem with understanding the meaning.
occurs when the emphasis on a term leads to an unwarranted or inappropriate conclusion.
*sometimes committed by taking portions of another statement out of original context.
*look for in-text citations.
occurs when the listener perceives or imagines or fears the speaker's accent or emphasis on a certain word.
*listender commits the fallacy by drawing a conclusion that CONTRASTS what they thought they heard.
Argument by Innuendo
speaker will suggest a particular conclusion buut NOT assert it directly.
Misuse of a Vague Expression
assigning, without reason, a very precise definition or description to language that is in fact very imprecise or general.
Distinction without a Difference
an attempt to convince someone that two equivalent statements or ideas are NOT equivalent; that they are different when they are not.
*denying or rejecting one version of the statement in order to accept or embrace ther other, presumably different version.
Arguing in a Circle
commited by saying the same thing in a conclusion as has been stated in the premise
*keep saying the same thing over and over again.
*look for repetition and circularity
*do not confuse with "Distinction"
committed when we use language that implies a position on some issue.
*look for future-perfect forms of a verb "going to be" and "will be".
*language implies what the outcome of the decision will be.
occurs when someone assumes the answer to a question that has not been asked, and then uses that assumed answer as the basis for a question that they do ask.
planting the answer to the question in the question itself.
*proposition, comma, and then query.
*"You will support my in my effort to get this judgship, won't you?"
committed when the speaker attempts to draw a conclusion on the basis of a faulty definition.
- *3-Part Dialogue
- 1. Definition
- 2. Challenge to the Definition
- 3. Rejection of the challenge because it doesn't fit the definition.