psychology chapter 11

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psychology chapter 11
2011-02-02 03:05:44
psychology chapter

psychology vocabulary chapter 11
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  1. motivation
    the process of starting, direction, and maintaining physical and psychological activities; includes mechanisms involved in preferences for one activity over another and the vigor and persistence of responses
  2. drive
    internal state that arises in response to a disequilibrium in an animal's physiological needs
  3. homeostasis
    constancy or equilibrium of the internal conditions of the body
  4. incentive
    external stimulus or reward that motivates behavior although it does not relate directly to biological needs
  5. instinct
    programmed tendency that is essential to a species's survival
  6. social learning theory
    the learning theory the role of observation and the imitation of behaviors observed in others
  7. hierarchy of needs
    Maslows views that basic human motives form a hierarchy and that the needs at each level of the hierarchy must be satisfied before the next level can be achieved; these needs progress from basic biological needs to the need for self-actualization
  8. anorexia nervosa
    an eating disorder in which an individual weighs less than 85% percent of her or his expected weight but still expresses intense fear of becoming fat
  9. bulimia nervosa
    an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by measures to purge the body of excess calories
  10. binge eating disorder
    an eating disorder characterized by out of control binge eating without subsequent purges
  11. sexual arousal
    the motivational state of excitement and tension brought about by physiological and cognitive reactions to erotic stimuli
  12. parental investment
    the time and energy parents must spend raising their offspring
  13. sexual script
    socially learned program of social responsiveness`
  14. date rape
    unwanted sexual violation by social acquaintance in the context of consensual dating situation
  15. thematic apperception test (TAT)
    a projective test in which pictures of ambiguous scenes are presented to an individual, who is encouraged to generate stories about them
  16. need for achievement (n Ach)
    an assumed basic human need to strive for achievement of goals that motivates a wide range or behavior and thinking
  17. attribution
    judgement about the causes of outcomes
  18. organizational psychologist
    psychologists who studies various aspects of the human work environment, such as communications among employees, socialization or enculturation of workers, leadership, job, satisfaction, stress and burnout, and overall quality of life
  19. equity theory
    a cognitive theory of work motivation that proposes that workers are motivated to maintain fair and equitable relationships with other relevant persons; also, a model that postulates that equitable relationships are those in which the participants' outcomes are proportional to their inputs
  20. expectancy theory
    a cognitive theory of work motivation that proposes that workers are motivated when they expect their efforts and job performance to result in desired outcomes