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What are the 6 nutrients?
What are the energy yielding nutrients?
What are the caloric values to the energy yielding nutrients?
- carbs: 4
- proteins: 4
- fats: 9
- alcohol: 7
What are essential nutrients?
consumed by foods, not sufficient amt made by body
What are the non-nutrients?
- nodigestible fiber
- chemicals added to enhance color, flavor, texture, and extend shelf life
What are macronutrients?
body needs in large amounts, include energy(carbs, lipids, proteins,water
What are micronutrients?
body needs in smaller amounts, vitamins and minerals (no energy)
What are the types of studies in nutritional research?
lab experiment, observational/experimental research, epidemiological research, double-blind placebo-controlled study
What are controls?
group that doesn't receive treatment but the placebo
What is a placebo?
sugar pill, inactive, to control group
What is the double-blind placebo controlled study?
study where no one knows who is receiving the treatment or placebo
How do you find good quality information?
What is a nutrition assessment?
examining a patient's health and diet history
What is a national survey?
assess the health nutritional status of Americans
What is the relationship between diet and health in America?
What are the 5 principles of healthy eating?
- calorie control
What is nutrient density?
nutrient dense foods are high in nutrients and low in kilocalories
What is energy density?
measurement of kilocalories in a food compared with the weight (grams) of the food.
What does DRI stand for?
Dietary reference intakes
How are the requirements set for RDA's (Recommended Dietary Allowance)?
each nutrient should meet needs of 97-98% of individuals in gender and age groups
How are the requirements set for EAR'S (Estimated Average Requirements)?
starting point of determining other values, meet needs of 50% of Americans by age and gender
How are the requirements set for AI's (Adequate Intakes)?
next best scientific estimate of amt of nutrient groups, judgement of FNB members
How are the requirements set for UL's (Tolerable Upper Intake Level)?
highest amt of nutrients that's unlikely to cause harm if consumed daily, increase risk of toxicity
How are the requirements for AMDR (Acceptable Macronutrients Distribution Ranges)?
- ensure intakes of nutrients is adequate...
- carbs: 45-65% of daily kcals
- fats: 20-35% of daily kcals
- proteins: 10-35% of daily kcals
Which types of foods are considered discretionary?
- grains, fruits, and/or vegetables and on occasional added fat, sweet, or dessert
- (whole milk over cereal instead of skim, uses up some discretionary kilocalorie allowance)
What is the Exchange lists?
diet planning tool grouping food together based on carbohydrates, protein, and fat content. One food can be exchanged for another food on the same list
What are functional foods?
foods providing additional health benefits
On food labeling... what are % daily values?
listed on the nutritional facts panel, are general reference levels on food label
With food labeling what are the Vitamin and mineral listings?
they are listed on the label to remind consumers to make sure to eat foods rich in these substances
What are the food labeling terms?
- 1. name of food
- 2. net weight
- 3. name & address of manufacturer/distributor
- 4. list of ingredients in descending order by weight (heaviest 1st)
- 5. Nutritional info...total kcals, kcals from fat, total fat, sat fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbs,dietary fiber, sugar, Vit A, Vit C, calcium, & iron
- 6.serving sizes
- 7. indication of how serving of food fits into diet
- 8. uniform definitions
- 9. health claims that are accurate and science based
What is health claims?
- must contain...
- 1. food or dietary compound i.e. fiber
- 2. corresponding disease or health-related condition
What are structure-function claims?
describes how a nutrient/substances (i.e. antioxidants), have been added to cereal, support a function in the body. i.e immune system
What areas of the GI tract and other organs participate in the digestive process?
- small intestine
- large intestine
What is the process of digestion?
- eat food > digest food to nutrients in GI tract > absorb into circulation > deliver nutrients to cells
- with the help of enzymes
What does the vascular (Portal) system do?
carries most water soluble nutrients and waste products
What does the Lymphatic system do?
- carries fat & fat soluble vitamins
- bathes the cells
What are common problems of digestion?
- Esophagus: Heartburn & GERD
- Esophageal Cancer
- Stomach: Belching
- gallbladder disease
- Intestines: flatulence
- ulcerative colitis
- crohn's disease
- celiac disease
- colon cancer
What are simple carbohydrates?
- mono- & disaccharides
- food sources
What are oligosaccharides?
3 to 10 units of monosaccharides combined
What are polysaccharides (starches)?
many sugar units combined...starch, glycogen, & fiber
What polysaccharides are found in the body?
What polysaccharides are found in foods?
For polysaccharides, what are soluble & insoluble fiber?
- soluble- dissolves in water, fermented by intestinal bacteria, slow gastric emptying
- insoluble- isn't dissolved in water or fermented by intestinal bacteria, relieves constipation
For polysaccharides, what the food sources for fiber?
- whole grains
How do we digest carbohydrates?
- disaccharides & starches are digested to monosaccharides
- monosaccharides are easily absorbed
- fiber passes through GI tract undigested
How do we absorb carbohydrates?
- absorbed into the intestinal cell mucosa
- transported to liver via the portal vein
- metabolic needs direct fate of monosaccharides
Why does lactose intolerance happen?
- maldigestion - inability to digest lactose due to low levels of the enzyme
Who has lactose intolerance?
- whomever might have a deficiency of lactase
What are the typical symptoms for lactose intolerance?
What is the role of carbohydrates in the body?
- provide energy
- maintain blood glucose
- spare protein
- prevents ketosis
What hormones regulate the process of blood glucose?
What is the Glycemic load?
amt of carbs consumed in a typical serving of food
What is the Glycemic index?
classifies the effects of carb-containing foods on blood glucose
What are the health effects of simple sugar, starch, & fiber?
- helps lower risk of:
- bowel irregularity
- heart disease
- diabetes mellitus
What are the recommendations for intake of simple sugar, starch, and fiber?
- DRI - min. of 130 gm/day
- MyPyramid - 6 s of grain/day, 3 s of dairy/day, 3 s veges/day, 2 s of fruit/day
- AMDR - 45-65% total kcals/day
What is the difference of Type 1 & Type 2 diabetes?
- Type 1 - inadequate insulin production
- Type 2 - insulin resistance
What is insulin resistance?
cells do not repsond to insulin
What are the health effects of Diabetes?
- nerve damage
- tooth loss
- leg & foot amputations
- gum problems
- eye diseases
- kidney disease
- heart disease
What are some issues of Natural, Added, and Sugar substitutes?
- contribute to - dental carries
- elevated level of fat in blood
- lowing of HDL cholesterol
What are some advantages of sugar?
- does not cause increased risk of diabetes
- hyperactivity in children
What are some disadvantages of sugar?
- soft drinks are the #1 contributor of consuming sugar
- health risks, dental carries