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Worms, Protozoa, amoeba
What is the difference between Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells?
- Prokarytotic cells are about 10 times smaller than eukaryotic cells
- Prokaryotic cells lack many cell structures suck as organelles
- All prokaryotes are microorgansims, but only some eukaryotes are
Basic structure of Bacteria
- cell wall
- cell membrane
Basic structure of Protozoans and Fungi
- Cell Membrane
Basic Structure of virus
- Nucleic acid
What are characteristics of Viruses?
- Not independantly living cellular organisms
- Much simplar than cells- basically a small amount of DNA or RNA wrapped in protein and sometimes by a lipid membrane
- Inviduals are called a virus particle or virion
- Depend on the infected cell's machinary to multiply and disperse
What is the typical size of Fungi?
About 1 mm
What is the size of protozoa?
about 100 um
What is the typical size of human cells?
Aboout 10 um
What is the typical size of bacteria?
About 1 um
What is the typical size of Virus?
200 nm - 10 nm
Lifestyles of Microorganisms
- Most live a free existence (in soil or wter, for example)
- Some are parasites
What are some causes of death due to pathogens?
- Influenze and pneumonia
- Respiratory infections
- Diarrheal diseases
Worldwide Infectious Diseases
- Increasing number of emerging diseases (SARS, AIDS, hepatitis C, viral encephalitis)
- Other diseases previously not linked to microorganisms now are (gastric ulcers, certain cancers, schizophrenia, and MS, OCD, CAD)
- Increasing number of drug resistant strains
What dangerous super bugs infects more healthy people?
Durg-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
What infection rival MRSA
When was the theory of spontaneous generation disproved? By who?
The theory was disproved by Louis Pasteur in 1861
Who was the first person to discovered microscopic life? When?
- Anton van Leeuwenhoek
The golden Ageof Microbiology
- Period when most of the disease-producing bacteria were isolated
- The Germ Theory of Disease
Koch's postulates- verified the germ theory
How did Pasteur disproved the spontaneous generation theory?
Experiment with flask that have curved neck
What is the components of Leeuwenhoek's microscope?
- Specimen holder
- Focus screw
What is Koch's Postulate?
- 1. Microorganism must be obersved in every case of the disease
- 2. It must be isolated and grown in pure culture
- 3. The pure culture, when inoculated in animals, must reproduce the disease
- 4. Microorganism must be recovered from the disease animal
Who first came up with the idea of vaccination? How?
- Edward Jenner in 1796
- Used the cow pox virus to protect humans against small pox
- In 1880 Pasteur discovered how vaccines work
Disinfectans to prevent disease
- Mid-1800's Joseph Lister
- Hand washing - Ignaz
- 1879 Paul Ehrlich discovered "magic bullets"
- 1928 Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin's activity
- In the 1940's, PCN was purified, chemically identified, and tested
- 1944 antibiotics were in mass production
- -1945 Researcher report resistant bacteria
- 1947 First case of clinical resistance to PCN observed
What is Taxonomy?
Naming, Classifying, and Identifying Microorganisms
- Classifying living things
- -Originated over 250 years ago with the work of Carl von Linne
discovering and recording the traits of organisms so they can be named and classified
How does the binomial system of nomenclature work?
- The generic (genus) name followed by the species name
- Generic part is capitalized, species is lowercase
- Both are italicized or underline if italics are't available
- Staphylococcus aureus
Name the taxonomic categories?
Characteristics of Eukaryoties vs. Prokaryotes
- -Posses a (Nucleus)
- -Ribosomes are 80's
- -Complex cellular structure containing aditional organelle