Culture and Classification of Microbes

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skyy22
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63681
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Culture and Classification of Microbes
Updated:
2011-02-02 17:09:26
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Microbiology
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Chapter 1 & 3, Classification of Microbes
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  1. Parasitology
    Worms, Protozoa, amoeba
  2. Myocology
    Fungi, yeast
  3. Bacteriology
    Bacteria
  4. Virology
    Viruses
  5. What is the difference between Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells?
    • Prokarytotic cells are about 10 times smaller than eukaryotic cells
    • Prokaryotic cells lack many cell structures suck as organelles
    • All prokaryotes are microorgansims, but only some eukaryotes are
  6. Basic structure of Bacteria
    • ribosomes
    • chromosome
    • cell wall
    • cell membrane
    • flagellum
  7. Basic structure of Protozoans and Fungi
    • Ribosomes
    • Nucleus
    • Mitochondria
    • Cell Membrane
    • Flagellum
  8. Basic Structure of virus
    • Envelope
    • Capsid
    • Nucleic acid
  9. What are characteristics of Viruses?
    • Not independantly living cellular organisms
    • Much simplar than cells- basically a small amount of DNA or RNA wrapped in protein and sometimes by a lipid membrane
    • Inviduals are called a virus particle or virion
    • Depend on the infected cell's machinary to multiply and disperse
  10. What is the typical size of Fungi?
    About 1 mm
  11. What is the size of protozoa?
    about 100 um
  12. What is the typical size of human cells?
    Aboout 10 um
  13. What is the typical size of bacteria?
    About 1 um
  14. What is the typical size of Virus?
    200 nm - 10 nm
  15. Lifestyles of Microorganisms
    • Most live a free existence (in soil or wter, for example)
    • Some are parasites
  16. What are some causes of death due to pathogens?
    • Influenze and pneumonia
    • Septicemia
    • Respiratory infections
    • HIV/AIDS
    • Diarrheal diseases
    • Tuberculosis
    • Malaria
  17. Worldwide Infectious Diseases
    • Increasing number of emerging diseases (SARS, AIDS, hepatitis C, viral encephalitis)
    • Other diseases previously not linked to microorganisms now are (gastric ulcers, certain cancers, schizophrenia, and MS, OCD, CAD)
    • Increasing number of drug resistant strains
  18. What dangerous super bugs infects more healthy people?
    Durg-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  19. What infection rival MRSA
    C. diff
  20. When was the theory of spontaneous generation disproved? By who?
    The theory was disproved by Louis Pasteur in 1861
  21. Who was the first person to discovered microscopic life? When?
    • Anton van Leeuwenhoek
    • 1673
  22. The golden Ageof Microbiology
    • 1857-1914
    • Period when most of the disease-producing bacteria were isolated
  23. Louis Pasteur
    • Pasteurization
    • The Germ Theory of Disease
  24. Robert Koch
    Koch's postulates- verified the germ theory
  25. How did Pasteur disproved the spontaneous generation theory?
    Experiment with flask that have curved neck
  26. What is the components of Leeuwenhoek's microscope?
    • Lens
    • Specimen holder
    • Focus screw
    • Handle
  27. What is Koch's Postulate?
    • 1. Microorganism must be obersved in every case of the disease
    • 2. It must be isolated and grown in pure culture
    • 3. The pure culture, when inoculated in animals, must reproduce the disease
    • 4. Microorganism must be recovered from the disease animal
  28. Who first came up with the idea of vaccination? How?
    • Edward Jenner in 1796
    • Used the cow pox virus to protect humans against small pox
    • In 1880 Pasteur discovered how vaccines work
  29. Disinfectans to prevent disease
    • Mid-1800's Joseph Lister
    • Hand washing - Ignaz
  30. Antibiotics
    • 1879 Paul Ehrlich discovered "magic bullets"
    • 1928 Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin's activity
    • In the 1940's, PCN was purified, chemically identified, and tested
  31. Antibiotic Resistance
    • 1944 antibiotics were in mass production
    • -1945 Researcher report resistant bacteria
    • 1947 First case of clinical resistance to PCN observed
  32. What is Taxonomy?
    Naming, Classifying, and Identifying Microorganisms
  33. Microbial nomenclature-
    Naming microorganims
  34. Taxonomy
    • Classifying living things
    • -Originated over 250 years ago with the work of Carl von Linne
  35. Identification-
    discovering and recording the traits of organisms so they can be named and classified
  36. How does the binomial system of nomenclature work?
    • The generic (genus) name followed by the species name
    • Generic part is capitalized, species is lowercase
    • Both are italicized or underline if italics are't available
    • Staphylococcus aureus
  37. Name the taxonomic categories?
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Orer
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  38. Characteristics of Eukaryoties vs. Prokaryotes
    • Eukaryotes:
    • -Posses a (Nucleus)
    • -Ribosomes are 80's
    • -Complex cellular structure containing aditional organelle
    • -1.ER
    • -2.Golgi
    • -3.Cytoskeleton
    • -4.Mitochondria

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