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Biomedical Model of Health
approach to health, illness, and treatment that views illness and disease as problems that occur in an individual body.
Foci of Biomedical Model of Health
Sociological Perspectives on Health
approach to health, illness, and treatment that stresses connections between disease, injury, health care and the organization of society
Central Elements of Sociological Perspectives on Health
- �Population health
- �Risk group
- �Social production of illness
- �Levels of analysis (macro, mezzo, & micro)
- �Critical approach (aka Conflict theory)
the distribution of illness, injury, or some other health problem in a given population.
Population Health studies
investigate how common specific health problems occur and the characteristics and circumstances of those affected.
group of people who share the same likelihood of a health event (e.g., a heart attack) or condition (e.g., depression) based on similar characteristics or circumstances.
The social production of illness
the social processes through which we define what illness means and appropriate behavioral and attitudinal responses to illness
learned social expectations and practices regarding how society should view sick people and how sick people should behave
process through which a condition or behavior becomes defined as a medical problem requiring a medical solution.
Sociological Levels of Analysis
- Macro-large, national-level social structures and institutions
- Mezzo-mid-level, local social structures
- Micro-patterns of daily individual (face-to-face) interaction
Elements of a Critical Approach
- �Groups in a society compete for limited resources.
- �Conflict is inevitable.
- �The origins, nature, and consequences of power relationships holds the key to why society is organized the way it is.
the study of the distribution of disease within a population according to social factors (e.g., social class, use of alcohol, unemployment)
patterns of death in a population
patterns of illness within a population; the relative incidence of a disease or condition.
patterns of combinations of illnesses within a population; the relative incidence of multiple diseases and their consequences.
illness that develops quickly and has a brief course (example: chicken pox, cold).
illness that develops gradually and has an extended course (example: asthma, arthritis, diabetes).
the number of cases within a given population at a given point in time.
the number of newcases or occurrences within a given population during a given interval.
Sources of Data Used to Measure Population Health
- �Clinical records
- �Public health surveillance
- �Epidemiological surveys
- �Vital statistics
- �Census data
Which Country Had A More Severe HIV/AIDS Crisis?
-Bahamas rate of 121.2 per 100,000
Generic Definition of a Rate
- Rate =Number of events in a specific period of time/
- Population at risk of experiencing the eventduring that period
- x 10^n
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
CDR =Number of deaths in a year/ Mid-year population X 1000
Age-Specific Death Rate (ASDR)
ASDR =Number of deaths in a year ina given age group/ Mid-year population of that age group X 1000
Cause-Specific Death Rate (CSDR)
CSDR = Number of deaths in a year from a given cause/ Mid-year population X 100,000
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
IMR = Number of annual deaths of live-born infants < 1 year of age/ Number of live births in the same year X 1000
Life Expectancy at Birth (e0)
the average number of years that individuals of a given population born in a given year can expect to live
- a method of taking population structure into account so that variation in the rates can be ascertained.
- Most commonly, direct standardization is performed to compensate for variation in the age structure of populations.
the established, or �steady-state� level of a disease in a population.
any significant increase in the numbers affected by a disease, or the first appearance of a new disease.
"world-wide� epidemics. An epidemic can usually be considered a pandemic if it significantly affects multiple continents or geographically distinct parts of the world.
Abel Omran�s Three Stages of the Epidemiological Transition
- �Age of pestilence and famine (20 < e0< 40)
- �Age of receding pandemics(e0 = approx. 50)
- �Age of degenerative and human-made diseases(e0 = approx. 70)
Three Periods of World Population Growth
- Before 1750:overall slow growth (including some periods of growth and some of decline)
- 1750-1900:rapid growth in Europe and N. America
- Since 1900:slow growth in Europe and N. America; Rapid growth in the developing world, especially since 1945.
the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
Stages of the Demographic Transition
- 1. high birth rate and high (and variable) death rate
- 2. high birth rate and declining death rate
- 3. birth and death rates both drop
- 4. low (and variable) birth rate and low death rate
Jay Olshansky�s Proposed Fourth Stage of the Epidemiological Transition
Shift of degenerative and human-made disease to advanced ages(e0 > 75)
Possible Fifth Stage of the Epidemiological Transition?
Emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease.
Emergence of New Diseases
- �Hemmoragicfevers (ex: ebola, Marburg)
- �Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Re-Emergence of New Strains of Existing Diseases
- �New strains of viral diseases such as influenza (ex: H1N1)
- �Resistant strains of bacterial infections (ex: TB, MRSA)
- �Emergence of harmful strains of previous harmless microbes (ex: cryptosporidium)
- �Escalation of endemic diseases to epidemic levels (ex: ecoli, salmonella)
- �Species cross-over of infectious disease (ex: variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, a.k.a. �mad cow disease�)