Final Review

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Author:
monkies
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63719
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Final Review
Updated:
2011-02-08 18:50:35
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Superficial Structures
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DMU
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  1. the approximate dimensions of the thyroids glands are
    5cm length, 2 cm width, 2 cm depth
  2. all of the following structures from neighboring structures for the thyroid gland except
    parotid muscle
  3. characteristics u/s findings of a cyst of the thyroid gland include all except
    vast majority results from hemorrhage or degenerative changes in an adenoma
  4. clinical signs of a thyroid goiter are
    thyroid enlargement
  5. the most common thyroid abnormality is
    goiter
  6. the best sonographic characteristic for a thyroid cancer is
    solid complex mass with heterogeneous echo pattern and irregular margins
  7. the most common feature of a thyroid adenoma is
    peripheral sonolucent halo
  8. the parathyroid glands produce a hormone that affects
    kidneys, bones and gastrointestinal tract
  9. the normal parathyroid glands measure less than
    4mm
  10. the parathyroid glands lie
    btwn the posterior borders of the medial lobes of the thyroid gland
  11. a patients presents with osteoporosis. a hyperplastic parathyroid gland is seen on u/s exam. your diggerential diagnosis inclides all except
    thyroid cyst
  12. the most common cause of hyperparathyroidism is
    parathyroid adenoma
  13. a _______ presents as a palpable midline mass btwn they hyoid bone and isthmus of the thyroid
    thyroglossal duct cyst
  14. which of the following structures lies posteriolateral to the thyroid gland
    longus colli muscle
  15. the most common cause of thyroid disorder worldwide is
    iodine deficiency
  16. increased vascularity with color doppler terned the "thyroid inferno" is seen in
    grave's disease
  17. the most common cause of thyroid malignacy is
    papillary carcinoma
  18. an abnormal lymph node demonstrates
    round contour
  19. a cystic fromation lateral to the thyroid gland is typically a
    brachial cleft cyst
  20. a brusa performs what function
    it provides fluid protection to areas that are subject to friction
  21. a Baker's cyst is an example of
    communicating bursa
  22. the best definition of refractile shadowing is
    tendon tear
  23. the result of infringement of the median nerve within the caral tunnel is
    carpal tunnel syndrome
  24. the tendon responsible for dorsal and plantar flexion of the foot is the
    achilles tendon
  25. what type of tendinitis is found more commonly in the sonographer
    De Quervain's tendinitis
  26. a complete tear of a muscle with a straightforward appearance of a retraced hyperechoic muscle
    clapper in the bell sign
  27. what is a bandlike flat tendon connecting myscle to bone
    aponeurosis
  28. support and strength of a joint result in part from the
    ligament
  29. when compared with muscle a normal nerve is
    hyperechoic
  30. important artifacts in musculoskeletal ultrasound include all except
    mirror image
  31. the achilles tendon is at an increased risk for injury because
    limited blood suply
  32. indications for wrist sonography include all except
    Thompson's sign
  33. acute rotator cuff tear may be caused by all except
    shoulder dislocation
  34. the proximal portion of the muscle is considered the
    origin
  35. the cartilage interface sign is the echogenic line on the anterior surface of the cartilage surrounding the
    humeral head
  36. tendinitis is seen more often in the shoulder, wrist, and
    elbow
  37. the easiest tendon to image in the adult shoulder is
    biceps
  38. the most common site of an achilles tendon tear is
    distal
  39. the largest tendon of the body is
    achilles
  40. the infraspinatus tendons lie ______ to the scapular spine
    lateral
  41. sonographic appearance of the normal muscle appears
    homogeneous
  42. the posterior glenoid labrum is a good landmark to help located
    infraspinatus tendon
  43. the scrotum contains
    testes, epididymis, spermatic cord
  44. the testes are covered by a fibrous capsule formed by the
    tunica albuginea
  45. the testes measure
    4 cm length, 3 cm A-P, 3 cm width
  46. sonographic characteristics of the testes includes
    a homogeneous pattern with medium - level echoes
  47. a linear stripe of variable thickness and echogenicity running through the testis in a craniocaudal direction represents the
    posterior and superior to the testis
  48. which fact about an undescended testis is false
    all undescended testes are found in the inguinal canal
  49. the differential diagnosis for an undescended testis includes all except
    hernia
  50. common causes of a secondary hydrocele include all except
    undescened testes
  51. which of the following statements about variocele is false
    they are more common on the right side
  52. a spermatocele usually lies
    in the head of the epididymis, superior to the testis
  53. a common problem that is viral in origin that affects some adolescent and middle age men is
    a epididymal cyst
  54. a problem that may occur secondary to an acute systemic infection is
    orchitis
  55. clinical findings of acute scrotal pain and swelling are suggestive of
    torsion
  56. the most common neoplasm associated with undescended testes is
    seminoma
  57. characteristic sonographic findings of torsion include all except
    hyperechoic parenchyma
  58. sonographic patterns to testicular neoplasms include all except
    complex mass with internal anechoic and echogenic areas
  59. the differential diagnosis of a testicular neoplasm may include all except
    orchitis
  60. a scanning feature that impoves contrast resolution and visibility of low-echoes is
    harmonics
  61. micolithiasis of the testis is associated with
    both varicocele and malignancy
  62. follow up exam of patients with micolithiasis is recommended
    annually
  63. attached at the superior pole of the testis btwn the epididymis and the testis is the
    appenix testis
  64. hydrocele develops btwn
    parietal and viscetal layers of the tunica vaginalis
  65. the rete testis is located
    in the hilum of the testis
  66. compared with the testis the epididymis typically appears
    • all of the above
    • coarser in texture
    • isoechoic
    • hypoechoic
  67. the breast is sonographically devided into three layers. which is not correct?
    pectoralis major
  68. par, Cooper's ligaments, connective tissue, blood vessls, nerves and lymphatics are found in which layer or zone
    the subcutaneous layer
  69. the _____ is mostly grandular tissue, whereas the peripheral part is adipose tissue rimmed by _____
    central layer, superficial fascia
  70. sonographically the breast may be characterized by
    an inhomogeneous parenchymal pattern
  71. Copper'sligaments are best characterized as
    echogenic line interfaces in the subcutaneous layer
  72. the retromammary layer is sonographically imaged as
    hypoechoic
  73. the most important signs to look for in determining a cyst lesion of the breast include all except
    disruption of architecture
  74. clinical findings of lumpy, painful, tender breast that vary with monthly cycles usuallt represent
    fibrocystic disease
  75. the charateristic findings of a papilloma of the breast includes all except
    no disruption of architecture
  76. the most common solid benign tumor of the breast is
    fiberoadenoma
  77. the most characteristic finding of a fibroadenoma is
    uniform, low level homogeneous echoes
  78. a cystic enlarment of a distal duct filled with milk is called a
    galactocele
  79. the most common malignant neoplasmt of the breast in women is a
    invasive ductal carcinoma
  80. characteristic findings of breast carcinoma include all except
    strong prosterior margins
  81. skin dimpling may be caused by
    retraction of tissue secondary to tumor infiltration
  82. the most common clinical sign of breast carcinoma is
    palpable lupm
  83. true statements about u/s of the breast
    • 1) ultrasound of the breast is the primary breast imaging modality used for females too young for a mammography who present for evaluation of a palpable breast lump.
    • 3) ulrasound of the breast must never be used to evaluate a breast abnormality in a pregnant female.
  84. true statement concerning breast cancer risk
    • 2) older women are at increast risk for development of breast cancer compared with younger women
    • 4) a significant risk factor for development of breast cancer is a postitive family hx of breast cancer in the first degree relatives.
  85. according to the american cancer society all women should begin annual screening mammography and screening breast u/s at age
    40
  86. correct statements
    4 only) in evaluating a breast mass by u/s signs of suspicion for malignancy include a poorly defined irregular margind, unhomogeneous pattern of internal echoes taller than wider shape and posterior shadowing.
  87. in documenting a sonographic breast mass which of the following statemts apply
    all
  88. signs or symtoms of possible breast cancer include all except
    a smooth low density mammographic mass solid on breast u/s that has not grown or changed in over 3 years
  89. u/s is often of benefit in guiding breast procedures except for which of the followoing
    large core needle biopsy of microcalcifications not visible on u/s
  90. in the case of a concerous mammographic mass the correlation sonographic mass will likely show
    irregular margin / taller than wider
  91. in the case of a smooth mammographic mass that is cystic the correlation sonographic mass will shoe
    anechoic posterior aucoustic enhancement
  92. advantages of breast u/s over mommography in evaluating the breast include all except
    limited radiation exposure to the patients

    and

    evaluation of those hard to reach places not well seen on mammogram such as parasternal tissue and axilla

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