the middle class, the top of the third estate; includes prosperous bankers, merchants, manufacturers, lawyers, doctors, journalists, and professionals
situation in which a government spends more money than it takes in
as a leader was well meaning but weak and indecisive, chose Jacques Necker as a financial expert
fortress in Paris used as a prison, French Revolution began when Parisians stormed it in 1789
legislative body made up of the three estates in pre-revolutionary France
Tennis Court Oath
famous oath made on a tennis court by members of the Third Estate in France
daughter of Maria Theresa, brother of Joseph II, lived a life of great pleasure and extravagance
Leader of the Jacobins and architect of the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
The period (1793-1794) of the French Revolution during which thousands of people were executed.
A period of brutal suppression or intimidation by those in power.
A device consisting of a heavy blade held aloft between upright guides and dropped to behead the victim below.
Emperor of the French (1804-1814). A brilliant military strategist, he deposed the French Directory (1799) and proclaimed himself first consul and, later, emperor (1804)
Body of French civil laws introduced in 1804, served as a model for many nations' civil codes
Congress of Vienna
assembly of European leaders that met after the Napoleanic era to piece Europe back together, met from September 1814 to June 1815
drug that prevents pain during surgery
a business organization in such areas as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories
money or wealth used to invest in business or enterprise
American inventor and manufacturer whose invention of the cotton gin (1793) revolutionized the cotton industry. He also established the first factory to assemble muskets with interchangeable parts, marking the advent of modern mass production.
private road built by entrepreneurs who charged a toll to travelers to use it
movement of people from urban areas to cities
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wroteThe Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
system in which the people as a whole rather than private individuals own all property and operate all businesses
form of Socialism advocated by Karl Marx, according to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole
the working class
political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system