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What is metabolism?
- A series of chemical process that go on in living organisms. Used to obtain energy. Linked to growth.
- Has 2 components (catabolism and anabolism) both which involve electron transfer and redox reactions
Breaking things down
- Building things up
- Anabolicreactions are classified as biosynthetic reactions because they are used to synthesize all the biological molecules needed by the cells living organisms.
Carbon is obtained from inorganic substances
Carbon is obtained from other organic molecules
- Obtain energy by breakind down other organic molecules and compounds.
- Nearly all infectious organisms are chemotrophys
What happens in an oxidation/reduction reaction?
- Oxidation and reduction reactions always occur together
- Often called redox reactions
- Reduced: Gains electrons
- Oxidized: Loses electrons (donates electrons)
What are the characteristics of enzymes as given in class?
- Enzymes are proteins that act as catalyst for metabolic reactions, making the reaction go faster.
- Each enzyme is specific for a reaction.
- are found in all living organisms and most cells contain 100’s of types which are constantly being manufactured and replaced.
- Enzymes work by lowering the energy of activation.
- Specific because of their shapes (3 dimensional shapes), if the shape changes activity is inhibited.
- Can be recycled
- Enzymes drop energy in half or sometimes 90%
What are the three main factors contributing to enzymatic activity?
- Competitive inhibition
- Allosteric inhibition
- Feedback inhibition
A reaction in which a molecule that is similar in structure to a substance competes w/ that substance by binding to the active site of an enzyme
It involves the binding of a non-competitive inhibitor to a site on the enzyme molecule that causes a change in the shape of the active site and inhibits the binding of the substrate in the active site.
Thefinal product in a pathway accumulates and begins to bind to and inactivate the enzyme that catalyzes the first reaction of the pathway.
How do glycolysis, the kreb cycle, and the ETC all relate?
They are all important pathways by which most organisms relese energy from nutrient molecules.
Where does glycolysis occur?
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and does not require oxygen
Starting/Ending materials of glycolysis
- Start: 2 ATP and glucose
- End: 2 ATP and 2 pyruvate
Starting/ending materials of the kreb cycle
- Start: 2 Acetyl CoA
- End: 2 ATP, 8 NADH, 2 FADH, and CO2
Starting/Ending materials of the ETC
- Start: FADH and NADH
- End: 34 ATP
Starting/Ending materials of Fermentation
- Start: 2 pyruvates
- End: Either 2 alcohols or 2 sugar acids and 2 ATP
Where is energy found in ATP?
High energy bonds
Where does the ETC happen and what is its importance?
- ETC is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane for eukaryote and prokaryotes they organized in the plasma membrane.
- ETC the final receptor for aerobic respiration is oxygen. anaerobic respiration, the final acceptor is an inorganic oxygen-containing molecule.
What are three major factors that affect enzymatic activity?
- Temp, pH, concentration of substrate, product & enzyme
- (W/ lower numbers of substrate, product and enzyme, molecules means a lower level of activity)
How do enzymes fit into substrates?
The shape of the molecule provides a distinctive site called the active site. It is here that: The substrate fits into the enzyme and the reaction occurs, The enzyme and substrate interact to form the enzyme-substrate complex.