Lower/Upper medulla and lesions

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    • a)Pyramids
    • b)CN XII - GSE
    • c)Medial laminiscus
    • d)MLF
    • e)XII Nucleus
    • f)DM X
    • g)Solitary tr. & Nu.
    • h)Nu. Ambiguus
    • i)SVNu
    • j)SVTr
    • k)Nu Gracillis
    • l) Nu cuneatus
    • m)Accessory cuneate Nu
    • n)DA
    • o)STT
    • p)Principle nu of inf olive
    • q)Level of CN XII
    • a)Stria medullaris acoustica
    • b)MVN
    • c)IVN
    • d)ICP
    • e)Cochlear N & Nu
    • f)XI N
    • g)Nu Prepositus (not XII Nu @ this level)
    • h)Inf Saltitory Nu
    • i)Solitary Tr/Nu
    • j)SVNu
    • k)SVTr
    • l)Nu Ambiguus
    • m)Principle Nu of inf olive
    • n)ML
    • o)Pyramids
    • p)DA
    • q)STT
    • r)Level of IX Nerve
    • a)Sulcus limitans
    • b)Special somatic afferents (SSA)
    • c)General somatic afferent (GSA)
    • d)General visceral afferent/special visceral afferent (GVA/SVA)
    • e)General somatic efferents (GSE)
    • f)General visceral efferents (GVE)
    • g)Special visceral efferents (SVE)
    • Special somatic efferents do not exist
    • a)Nu gracillis
    • b)Nu cuneatus
    • c)Don't worry about it
    • d)Pyramidal decussation
    • e)Central canal
    • f)Supraspinal nu
    • g)MLF
    • h)Pyramids
    • i)STT
    • j)PCST
    • k)ASCT
    • l)SVNu
    • m)SVTr
    • nPyramidal decussation
    • a)CN X
    • b)MVN
    • c)IVN
    • d)ICP
    • e)DM X
    • f)Solitary Nu/Tr
    • g)SVTr
    • h)SVNu
    • i)Nu Ambiguus
    • j)MLF
    • k)XII Nu
    • l)ML
    • m)Dorsal accessory olive
    • n)DA
    • o)STT
    • p)Principle nu of inf olive
    • q)Medial accessory olive
    • r)Pyramids
    • s)IV ventricle
    • t)Level of CN X
    • a) Nu gracillis
    • b)Nu cuneatus
    • c)Internal arcuate fibers
    • d)DA
    • e)Accessory cuneate nu
    • f)SVNu
    • g)SVTr
    • h)ML
    • i)Pyramids
    • j)XII nu
    • k)Central canal
    • l)Sensory decussation
  1. What type of neurons are in the Hypoglossal Nu?
    GSE to the tongue muscles
  2. Where does CN XII exit the brainstem?
    In the preolivary sulcus
  3. What type of nerons/fibers are in the DM X?
    Preganglionic parasympathetic (GVE) to thoracic and abdl viscera
  4. What type of neurons are in the Nu Ambiguus?
    SVE neurons that become part of CN IX, CN X, and Cranial XI to innervate the muscles of the larynx, pharyynx and soft palate
  5. What is the function of the area postrema?
    Emetic center (located outside the BBB)
  6. What type of fibers/neurons are in the Solitary Tr and Nu?
    GVA and SVA
  7. What type of fibers/neurons make up the Spinal V Tr and Nu?
  8. Where do axons of the inferior olivary nucleus go?
    Contralateral cerebellum
  9. What is in the medial lamniscus?
    Internal arcuate fibers from the contralateral Nu cuneatus
  10. What type of fibers/nuclei are in the IVN and MVN?
  11. Where do olivocerebellar fibers originate?
    Contralateral inferior olivary nucleus
  12. What are the five components of CN X and CN XI?
    • i)GSA from epiglottis and skin of external ear
    • ii)GVA from larynx, thoracic and abdl viscera, and carotid body
    • iii)SVA taste from epiglottis
    • iv)GVE to postganglionic parasympathetic ganglia in thorax and abd
    • v)SVE to skeletal muscles of the soft palate, larynx, and pharynx
  13. Where are the neuronal cell bodies of GSA fibers?
    Superior ganglion of CN IX or X
  14. Where are the neuronal cell bodies of GVA fibers?
    Inferior ganglion of CN IX or X
  15. Where are the neuronal cell bodies of SVA fibers?
    Inferior ganglion of CN X or IX
  16. Where are the neuronal cell bodies of GVE fibers?
    • CN X - DM X
    • CN XI - Inferior salvitory nucleus
  17. Where are the neuronal cell bodies of SVE fibers?
    Nucleus Ambiguus
  18. What are the three arteries that supply the medulla and where do they supply?
    • Anterior spinal aa - ventromedial region
    • vertebral aa - lateral and rostral areas
    • posterior spinal/posterior inferior cerebellar a - posterior region
  19. What is infeiror alternating hemiplegia?
    Unilateral lesion of the pyramids and CN XII
  20. What are the signs of inferior alternating hemiplegia?
    • UMN - paralysis of contralateral side of body
    • LMN - paralysis of ipsilateral tongue muscle
  21. What is it called when a lesion of the pyramids extends dorsally to involve the medial lemniscus?
    Medial medullary syndrome
  22. What is a unilateral lesion of the lateral medulla called?
    Lateral medullary syndrome or Wallenberg's syndrome
  23. What causes lateral medullary syndrome?
    Vascular disturbances of PICA or vertebral artery
  24. What are the clinical disturbances of Wallenberg's Syndrome?
    • Loss of pain, thermal sensation on ipisilateral face (loss of SVTr and Nu)
    • Loss of pain, thermal on contralateral side of body (loss of STT)
    • Dysphagia, dysphonia (loss of Nu Ambiguus and CN X fibers)
    • Ipsilateral ataxia and hypotonia (loss of inferior cerebellar peduncle)
    • Ipisilateral Horner's syndrome (loss of DA)
    • Vertigo, nystagmus (loss of vestibular nuclei)

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Lower/Upper medulla and lesions
2011-02-03 02:07:42

Medulla pics + lesions
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